What is this episode about?
Learn about one of the greatest goddesses from world mythology, Athena in this new myths and legends episode from English Plus Podcast.
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I am using an automatic transcript service as it is not possible for me to do it on my own and I cannot afford human transcription at the moment. The service claims to have about 95% accuracy, which means there will still be some mistakes, so my apologies for having a less than perfect transcript, but I hope I can afford human transcription soon and I will solve this problem. However, the service is pretty good, and the transcript is almost perfect.
Welcome to a new episode from English plus podcasts. Today’s episode is myths and legends, and we will talk about none other than Athena. We will talk about her character overview, the major myths related to Athena. We will talk about Athena in context, key themes and symbols related to Athena. And we will talk about Athena in art literature, and everyday life.
[00:00:30] So without further ado, let’s start talking about our today’s episode of myths and legends. And our character for today is Athena in Greek mythology. Athena was the goddess of wisdom, warfare and crafts. She was the favorite child of Zeus and one of the most powerful of the 12 Olympian gods. Although Athena was worshiped in many cities, the Athenians considered her to be their special protector and named their city after her.
[00:01:03] No other Greek, God has such a specific association with a city. Many rulers sought her wisdom in both government and military matters. The Romans called her Minerva like Artemis. The goddess of the hunt Athena was a Virgin goddess. Unlike Artemis. She did not reject men. Athena took an active part in the lives of many heroes and enjoy their bravery in battle.
[00:01:30] As a goddess of battle, she stood alongside warriors. She favored and gave them courage in the fight. She particularly favored those warriors who were both strong and intelligent. Her main weapon was the ages, a shield that inspired panic in her enemies when she raised it in battle. Balancing her role as a goddess of warfare is her role as the goddess of the arts and domestic craft, such as sewing in both aspects of our character, Athena represents rational organization, moderation and intelligent preparation.
[00:02:06] She is therefore closely associated with social organization in its ideal form. And the welfare of the community was a particular interest to her. Now let’s talk about the major myths referring to a Thena Sina was the daughter of Zeus and of the Titan meters known for her knowledge and wisdom. Meatus had tried to avoid Zeus’s advances by changing herself into different animals, but her tactic failed and she became pregnant.
[00:02:35] Zeus learned from an Oracle that meet us was expecting a girl. The article also predicted that if meters and Zeus had a male child, the boy would overthrow his father. When he grew up just as Zeus had overthrown his father to protect himself from this possibility Zeus swallowed meatus after she changed herself into a fly.
[00:02:59] Some sources say that Zeus did this mainly because he wanted to possess her wisdom, time passed. And one day Zeus developed a terrible headache. He cried out in pain. Seeing he felt as if a warrior were stabbing him from inside with a spear have faced us. The God of metalworking finally understood what was wrong and split Zeus’s head open with an ex Athena sprang out, fully grown and dressed in armor.
[00:03:28] By all accounts. She was a dutiful daughter for his part, Zeus intended to indulge Athena, which made the other gods jealous and angry. The goddess was active in the lives of many warriors, Kings and heroes. She gave Balero phone, the magic bridal that enabled him to ride Pegasus the winged horse. She showed the ship builder, Argus how to build a magic ship for Jason and then protected the boat on its travels.
[00:03:57] She helped Perseus kill the monster Medusa. She supported Herrick Lees through the 12 labors he was made to perform. I think that also played a role in the Trojan war. She was one of three goddesses who took part in a beauty contest that led to the war. During the conflict, she fought on the side of the Greeks in particular, she inspired ODCs to come up with the idea of the Trojan horse, which brought about the defeat of the Trojans.
[00:04:27] When the fighting was over, she helped Odysseus return home. Although Athena favored the Greeks, she was also important to the people of Troy. They erected a statue of her and called it the palladium. The Greeks believe that as long as it remained in Troy, the city could not be conquered. Before they were able to win the Trojan war.
[00:04:49] The green had to creep into the city and steal the statue to become the protector of Athens. Athena had to win a contest. Again, Poseidon God of the sea. The clever Athenians asked each God to devise a gift for the city. With his Trident Poseidon struck the Acropolis, the Hill in the middle of the city and assault water spring began to flow.
[00:05:13] I Theano then touch the Acropolis with her spear and an olive tree sprang forth. The people decided that the goddesses gift was the more valuable and chose her as their protector. To avoid angering Poseidon. They promise to worship him to in ancient times, visitors to Athens were taken to see Athena’s olive tree and the rock that Poseidon had struck.
[00:05:37] Despite her Virgin status, Athena ended up raising a child. According to one myth have faced us, became attracted to her and try to force his attention on her. The powerful Athena resisted him and her face. This is seed fell to the ground from that seed was born to half man, half snake earache, Tony’s Athena put the baby in a box and gave him to the daughters of sea crops.
[00:06:02] King of Athens. She told them to care for him, but not to look in the box. Two of the daughters looked inside and driven, mad, jumped off the Acropolis to their deaths. As you know, then took Eric Thelonious to her temple and raised him herself later. He became King of Athens and honored her greatly. Athena created many useful items, including the Potter’s wheel vase, horse, bridal chariot, and ship, which explains why she was regarded as the goddess of handicrafts.
[00:06:34] She was the patron of architects and sculptors too. And the inventor of numbers and mathematics, which influenced many aspects of civilization. Athena took a special interest in agricultural work, giving farmers the rake, Blau and yolk and teaching them how to use oxen to cultivate their fields. Athena also invented, spinning and weaving.
[00:06:57] As Sienna even tried her hand at musical instruments, she created the flute to imitate the wailing of the Gorgons at trio of beastly women with snakes, for hair. When the goddess, so her reflection playing this new instrument with her cheeks puffed out, she was disgusted with her appearance. She threw the food away and put a curse on the first person to pick it up.
[00:07:19] The Seder. Marcy has picked up the flute and suffered the consequences when he dared to challenge Apollo to a musical contest. Some sources say that Athena threw away the flute because the other gods laughed at her for looking so ridiculous. Athena was generally a kind goddess. She promoted good government and looked after the welfare of Kings who asked her for guidance.
[00:07:41] Athena was a goddess of justice tempered by mercy. Her work led Athens to adopt trial by jury likely other gods. However, Athena did not tolerate lack of respect. She turned around acne into a spider after Arachni boasted that she could weave more skillfully than Athena. She also blinded diarrhesis when he happened upon a stream where she was bathing.
[00:08:05] And so her nude, because this fault was accidental, she softened his punishment by giving him the gift of prophecy or the ability to see the future. Now let’s look at Athena in context. The Acropolis is a Hill rising 500 feet above the city of Athens on it stands the remains of some of the finest temples of ancient Greece.
[00:08:26] The largest and most famous of these temples is the Parthenon, which was built to honor Athena. This magnificent white marble building is surrounded by columns. A huge statue of Athena made of gold and ivory used to stand inside. Athena as the protector of Athens was no doubt, a figure whose importance was tied directly to Athens importance as a Greek center of power, her qualities reflect the qualities that Athenians saw in themselves, as well as the qualities that they aspire to achieve.
[00:08:59] Several festivals, some tied to the growing season were held in honor of Athena for sessions of priests, priestesses, and other members of society. Particularly young girls often formed part of the celebration. The goddesses most important festival was the started as a harvest festival. This annual event gradually evolved into a celebration of Athena.
[00:09:23] A great parade of people from Athens and surrounding areas brought the goddess gifts and sacrifices, athletic competitions, poetry, readings, and musical contests rounded out the festival. The Benefind air came to rival the Olympic games in popularity. Now let’s talk about some key themes and symbols regarding Athena.
[00:09:45] I think that is one of the most well regarded deities in Greek mythology. Although she sometimes struck down those who showed arrogance or disrespect. She was generally considered a wise and beautiful protector. She’s often associated with owls, a traditional symbol of wisdom. A Thena is also described as having gray eyes, which Greeks considered to be a sign of wisdom.
[00:10:08] The olive tree is another important symbol of Athena representing her gift to the people of Athens. Now what about Athena in art literature and everyday life? In works of art. Athena is usually portrayed as a warrior. She wears a helmet and breast plate and carries a spear and a shield adorned with the head of Medusa.
[00:10:28] An owl generally sits on her shoulder or hand or hovers nearby the Romans frequently depicted the goddess, wearing a coat of armor. Athena inspired numerous paintings and statues. The great Athenian sculptor Phidias produced several works in the fifth century BCE, including a 30 foot Brown space and an ivory and gold statue that was housed in the Parthenon.
[00:10:53] The statue of Athena kept in the Roman temple of the goddess. Vesta was said to be the palladium of Troy taken by the Trojan Prince NAS. When he fled the burning city. Athena and her stories appear in many literary works as well. In Greek literature. She is a prominent character in Homer’s Iliad and the Odyssey and her influence is felt throughout the place of escalas Sophocles and abilities.
[00:11:18] The God has also plays a leading role in the works of Roman writers, Virgil and of it in the realm of science. One genus of ELLs has been classified under the name Athenee and alternate spelling of the goddess’s name. So that was everything I wanted to share with you about Athena in this episode of myths and legends, I hope you learn some new information about Athena and of course, I hope you enjoy the new information you learned.
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