Vocabulary Building | Lightning

Podcast Title

English Plus Podcast
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Season Number

4

Episode Number

643
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Episode Length

20 Minutes

Introduction

Learn the words depict, surpass, induce, inherent, prevalent and 5 more words in the context of our topic, lightning, in a new Vocabulary Building episode from English Plus Podcast.


Audio Podcast


Lightning

Spectacular, searing, explosive, and fiery are words used in attempts to depict the image of a bolt of lightning. Even fireworks, with their color and noise cannot surpass the drama of lighting in the summer sky. The cause for these mysterious exhibitions of light patterns has always fascinated the curious who seek to explain such things.

The Earth, like an enormous battery, leaks electricity. Electrons bleed from negatively charged areas of the Earth to the atmosphere. In time, clouds may build up an electrical charge 100 million times more powerful than the charge contained on the Earth below. When this charge becomes stronger than the insulating air, it returns to Earth in the form of lightning.

Another source of lightning is thunderheads. These clouds are filled with moisture in the form of ice crystals. As some of the ice crystals grow larger, becoming hail, they start to fall. Within the billowing thunderhead, the falling hail collides with rising ice crystals and strips electrons off the crystals. The result is that the upper section of the cloud becomes positively charged, while the bottom is negatively charged. This induces an area of positive charge on the Earth below. Eventually, it forces the electrons from the sky to the Earth. Just as a spark leaps between the points of a spark plug, electrons jump the gap. The result is lightning.

Lightning strikes the earth as many as 100 times every second. A single bolt of lightning may develop 3,750 million kilowatts of power, but its energy lasts only a fraction of a second. Much of the inherent energy in a lightning bolt is lost as heat. The peak temperature in a channel (the path a bolt of lightning travels) may be as high as 55,000 degrees Fahrenheit. However, it lasts for only a few millionths of a second. Even more impressive is the speed at which lightning bolts can travel—as fast as 100,000 miles per second.

One of the hot spots for lightning in the United States is central Florida. Why is lightning so prevalent in this area? Central Florida has two of the main ingredients for electrical storms—moist air and heat. By contrast, the state of Washington, which also has plenty of moisture, has almost no lightning storms. The reason is simply that temperatures are much lower than the tropical heat of the Sunshine State.

As fascinating as such storms are to watch, one should always seek shelter in an electrical storm. Standing out in the open or under a tree can be very dangerous. Lightning is attracted to both tall trees and open areas. Golf courses, parks, and beaches are excellent targets for bolts from the blue. As many as one hundred Americans are killed by lightning every year. So, no matter how much one enjoys watching nature’s fireworks, electrical storms should always be treated with respect.


Unlock Keywords

Choose the best answer.

Which word could best replace depict in "Spectacular, searing, explosive, and fiery are words used in attempts to depict the image of a bolt of lightning."?
Which word could best replace surpass in "Even fireworks, with their color and noise cannot surpass the drama of lighting in the summer sky."?
In "The cause for these mysterious exhibitions of light patterns has always fascinated the curious who seek to explain such things." exhibitions means ______.
Which word could best replace atmosphere in "Electrons bleed from negatively charged areas of the Earth to the atmosphere."?
Which word could best replace collides in "Within the billowing thunderhead, the falling hail collides with rising ice crystals and strips electrons off the crystals."?
In "The result is that the upper section of the cloud becomes positively charged, while the bottom is negatively charged. This induces an area of positive charge on the Earth below." the word induces means ______.
Which word could best replace inherent in "Much of the inherent energy in a lightning bolt is lost as heat."?
Which word could best replace impressive in "Even more impressive is the speed at which lightning bolts can travel—as fast as 100,000 miles per second."?
Which word could best replace prevalent in "One of the hot spots for lightning in the United States is central Florida. Why is lightning so prevalent in this area?"?
In "Central Florida has two of the main ingredients for electrical storms—moist air and heat." the word ingredients mean ______.

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Episode Transcript

Welcome to a new English plus episode. This episode is all about vocabulary building. And as we usually do, we will learn 10 new words every time in context. And our context or story for today is lightning. You can practice what you will learn in this episode on my website, there’s a link in the description that will take you to the custom post I created for this episode, you will find a lot to learn on my website English plus podcast.com. And better yet, if you are a patron you will get exclusive Episodes Series and resources to take your English and learning to the next level. You can find all the links you need in the description of the episode. But first let me tell you about the words we are going to learn in today’s episode. These words are depict surpass exhibition, atmosphere collide, induce inherent, impressive prevalent and ingredients.

And now without further ado, let’s talk about lightning. Spectacular searing explosive and fiery are words used in attempts to depict the image of a bolt of lightning. Even fireworks with their color and noise cannot surpass the drama of lightning in the summer sky. The cost of these mysterious exhibitions of light patterns has always fascinated the curious who seek to explain such things. The earth like an enormous battery leaks electricity, electrons bleed from negatively charged areas of the earth to the atmosphere. In time, clouds may build up an electrical charge 100 million times more powerful than the charge contained on the earth below. When this charge becomes stronger than the insulating air, it returns to earth in the form of lightning. Another source of lightning is Thunder heads. These clouds are filled with moisture in the form of ice crystals. As some of the ice crystals grow larger becoming hail they start to fall. With the billowing thunder head. The falling hail collides with rising ice crystals and strips electrons off the crystals. The result is that the upper section of the cloud becomes positively charged while the bottom is negatively charged. This induces an area of positive charge on the earth below. Eventually, it forces the electrons from the sky to the earth. Just as a spark leaps between the points of a sparkplug electrons jump the gap. The result is lightning. Lightning strikes the Earth as many as 100 times every second, a single bolt of lightning may develop 3700 50 million kilowatts of power, but its energy lasts only a fraction of a second, much of the inherent energy in a lightning bolt is lost as heat. The peak temperature in a channel which is the path of bolt of lightning travels may be as high as 55,000 degrees Fahrenheit. However, it lasts for only a few millionth of a second. Even more impressive is the speed at which lightning bolts can travel as fast as 100,000 miles per second. One of the hotspots for lightning in the United States is Central Florida. Why is lightning so prevalent in this area, Central Florida has two of the main ingredients for electrical storms moist air and heat. By contrast, the state of Washington which also has plenty of moisture has almost no lightning storms. The reason is simply that temperatures are much lower than the tropical heat of the Sunshine State. As fascinating as such storms are to watch, one should always seek shelter in an electrical storm. standing out in the open or under a tree can be very dangerous. Lightning is attracted to both tall trees and open areas. Golf courses, parks and beaches are excellent targets for boats from the blue as many as 100 Americans are killed by lightning every year. So no matter how much one enjoys watching nature’s fireworks, electrical storms should always be treated with respect. So that was what I wanted to tell you about lightning and now it is time to start talking about these 10 words 10 keywords that I want to share the meaning of with you in context. Let me remind you again before we start talking about the words that these words are different surpass, exhibition atmosphere collide, induce inherent, impressive, prevalent and ingredient. And now we’ll take a short break and we’ll come right after to talk about these words don’t go away

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Now let’s start talking about the words we want to focus on. From today’s story about lightning. Let’s start with the very first word depict d p, ICT depict. Let’s see how we use that in context. We said spectacular searing explosive and fiery are words used in attempts to depict the image of a bolt of lightning. Well, what does that mean to depict, it simply means to describe to depict someone or something means to describe them or give an impression of them in writing. Now, of course, it could be in different forms, it could be in drawing as well. But here since we talked about spectacular searing explosive, these are words. So we are talking about this aspect of the meaning, which is in writing. So if you want to describe something in writing, you can use this word depict you depict something. And in our example here, you depict the image of a bolt of lightning. So that was our first word. What about our second word surpass su R P A S S surpass? Let’s see how we use that in context. We said even fireworks with their color and noise cannot surpass the drama of lightning in the summer sky. So what does that mean? If one person or thing surpasses another, the first is better than or has more of a particular quality than the second. So here nothing we said nothing can surpass the drama of lightning into summer sky, not fireworks, not even with all their color and noise. They cannot surpass the drama of lightning in the summer sky, this natural phenomenon that surpasses any other manmade fireworks. So that’s the meaning of surpass. What about our next word, exhibition? exh i b i t i o n exhibition? Let’s see how we use that in context. We said the cause for these mysterious exhibitions of life patterns has always fascinated the curious who seek to explain such things. So what do we mean by exhibitions here, an exhibition of a particular skillful activity or something like here, it’s a natural thing, of course, but it is still a kind of a display or example of this marvelous phenomenon that people notice and admire. That’s the meaning of exhibition. When I say an exhibition of life patterns, we’re not talking about something we don’t like we’re talking about something we admire. So that was our word exhibition, we come to the next word atmosphere at MOSP, H, E, R, E atmosphere. Let’s see how we use that in context. We said electrons bleed from negatively charged areas of the earth to the atmosphere. So what is the atmosphere? Well, simply, a planet’s atmosphere is the layer of air or other gases around it. And for us, we’re lucky to have a healthy atmosphere and atmosphere that has oxygen in it so that we can breathe and live and so we can have life on our planet. For other planets. They have atmosphere, but their atmosphere is not as good as ours. That’s why we have life on Earth. But this is the atmosphere it’s the layer of air or other gases around it. So that way is our word what is the next word collide? Ce O L L I D collide? How did we use this word in context? We said within the billowing Thunderhead, the falling hail collides with rising ice crystals and strips electrons off the crystals. So what does that mean was the meaning of collide, if two or more moving people or objects obviously collide, they crash into one another. If a moving person or object collides with a person or object that is not moving, they crash into them. So it can be two moving objects or one moving and one stationary doesn’t matter. But when they collide, they crash into each other. Okay? So crash, Clash meet head on. That’s the meaning of collide. That was our word collide. Now let’s move on to the next word, induce INDUC e induce let’s see how we use this word in context, we said the result is that the upper section of the cloud becomes positively charged while the bottom is negatively charged. This induces an area of positive charge on the earth below. This induces what does that mean? Well, to induce a state or condition means to cause it to produce it to create it? Well, here of course, it is natural phenomenon, but still, there are reasons behind it. There are things that created that produce it, it’s not just happening out of thin air, or with no reason, there are reasons and these reasons, these ingredients we’ll talk about ingredients later these ingredients in these conditions when they happen they induce an area of positive charge on the earth below. So simply means to cause something to induce it Alright, that was our word. Now, the next word inherent i n h e r e n t,

what did we say about that when we talked about lightning, we said much of the inherent energy in a lightning bolt is lost as heat. So, when we talk about inherent energy, why are we talking about something that comes from the outside or that comes from the inside? Well, obviously, its inherent alright. So, the inherent qualities of something are the necessary and natural parts of it, they come from the inside the intrinsic, the basic, the natural, that can also be used for people to talk about inherent qualities, not those that you can acquire things that you already have inherent. We can use that for situations for people or for things of course, and here we use it to talk about the lightning bolt, the inherent energy, the intrinsic energy, the energy within. So that was our word in Hearne. That is impressive, isn’t it? Right? And impressive is exactly the next word. We’re going to talk about i m p r e s s, I V. E. Impressive. How did we use that in context, we said even more impressive is the speed at which lightning bolts can travel as fast as 100,000 miles per second. Imagine that very fast. Well, of course, we can say lightning fast, right? It works here. So we use the word impressive, right? Because we’re talking about even more impressive is the speed. So what is the meaning of impressive something that is impressive impresses you, it strikes you something great, splendid. And you are impressed because it is great in size or degree or it is done with a great deal of skill. Now, obviously, we’re talking about a natural phenomenon here. But that can also impress you because it is beautiful, like rainbows or Aurora or other things like that. They’re just great. If we’re not scientists, we may not understand how they happen. But we are always impressed by them because they are impressive. That is the word Don’t forget we’re talking about impressive here right. Now we are left with two more words, two more words, and we will have covered 10 key words from this context. The next word is prevalent P r, e v, a l, e and t prevalent. Let’s see how we use that in context. We said one of the hotspots for lightning in the United States is Central Florida. Why is lightning so prevalent in this area? Why is it so prevalent? We said it’s one of the hotspots Central Florida is one of the hotspots for lightning in the United States. It happens there a lot. So why is it so prevalent? The word prevalent? What does it mean? Now when we talk about a condition, practice or belief or something that is prevalent? We simply mean that it is common? It is popular. Now here of course we’re not talking about popular lightning is not popular in Central Florida or not. But it is common. It happens a lot. When we say prevalent we may mean of course popular accepted or common. But in our case here we’re talking about that it happens commonly there. It is a regular phenomenon in Central Florida it happens a lot one of the hot spots for lightning. Alright, that’s the word prevalent. Our last word for today’s episode is ingredient I N G R E D, i e and t ingredient. How did we use that in context?

Now we just asked the question why is lightning so prevalent in Central Florida? And the answer is this central Florida has two of the main ingredients for electrical storms moist air, and heat. So what is the meaning of ingredients when we talk about ingredients we’re talking about the things that are used to make something now of course we use that specially to talk about food. You might have heard this word before when you read a recipe somewhere or you wanted to make some kind of a dish or whatever and you always have the ingredients the things you need to make this dish but of course it is not exclusively used to talk about food we can also use that to talk about lightning like we just did in our story about lightning obviously. So that was ingredient let me remind you again, we talked about 10 Good words that you can add to your active vocabulary bank. The first word was depict then we talked about surpass, exhibition atmosphere collide, induce inherent, impressive, prevalent and ingredient. I hope you like the words I hope you like the story that I shared with you today. It is a little bit scientific. I’m not gonna say it is scientific, I shared just a couple of scientific details in it. But it is important to know right? And the words are very important. And they are some of the most common words that you can use in your everyday language both in writing and speaking. And so that was everything I wanted to share with you in this English plus episode. Don’t forget to visit my website English plus podcast.com. First of all, to practice what you have learned in this episode. That’s the first thing and then you can check on the great learning opportunities you can find there there is the activity center with daily fun activities, quizzes and logic and math puzzles. And if you decide to become a patron on Patreon, there’s a lot more available only to patrons like the exclusive audio series and my newest addition to patrons benefits the weekly assignment based on all our episodes from the week there’s also English plus magazine and many other benefits you get when you become a patron. All the links you need are in the description of the episode. What are you waiting for? Take your English and learning to the next level and never stop learning with English plus podcast.com. Thank you very much for listening to this episode. This is your host Danny I will see you next time.

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