Introduction

In this chapter from our grammar course, we are going to learn how to talk about the future. We are going to learn about the future simple using will and be going to, the present progressive and simple for the future, the future progressive, and the future perfect simple and progressive.


Audio Episode


Pretest

Choose the best answer based on your understanding of the Odyssey episode 05 Breadcrumbs to A Heartbreak.

Alexios went to all these places EXCEPT.
What did Alexios learn from Xenia about his mother?
What did Alexios learn from his journey to Argolis?
What did Alexios learn about his mother from Anthousa?
Why couldn't Alexios kill Chrysis?
Why did Alexios decide to kill the Monger in public?
How was Athens different when Alexios went back?
Who killed Perikles?
What was the heartbreak in the title of this episode?
Where is Alexios going next?

Forms of Will and Be Going to

Will does not take a final s and is followed immediately by the simple form of a verb.

e.g.

The weather will turn cold.

NOT

The weather wills turn cold.

The weather will turns cold.

The weather will to turn cold.

Contractions

will + not = won’t

will = ‘ll (it’s OK to use the contracted form with pronouns in both speaking and writing, but with nouns, we don’t usually use contracted forms in writing.

e.g.

That will be difficult.

That’ll be difficult. (We can use that in speaking or informal writing only)

In informal speech, be going to is often pronounced “gonna.”

e.g.

I’m going to leave soon.

I’m gonna leave soon. (informal)


Will vs. Be Going To

While we can use both will and be going to for predictions, be going to is used when we make certain predictions and will is used more for general predictions.

e.g.

One day, we will find life on other planets.

Team A is going to win the game; there’s only 2 minutes left and they’re 20 points behind.

Be going to is commonly used in speaking to express a prior plan (a plan made before the moment of speaking)

e.g.

I’m going to paint my bedroom tomorrow.

Will (not be going to) is used to express willingness or offer to help. In this case, will expresses a decision the speaker makes at the moment of speaking.

e.g.

The phone’s ringing. — I’ll get it.

Will not/won’t can express refusal, with a person or with an inanimate object, when the meaning is not exactly future.

e.g.

She won’t tell me how much she earns?

The car won’t start.


Checkpoint 1

Welcome to your Same Quiz


Expressing the Future in Time Clauses

When the meaning of the time clause is future, the simple present tense is used with the time clause; Will or be going to can be used in the main clause, but not with the time clause.

e.g.

When Bob comes, we will see him.

I will get home at 5:30. After I get home, I will eat dinner.

A time clause begins with such words as when, before, after, as soon as, until and while and includes a subject and a verb. The time clause can come either at the beginning of the sentence or in the second part of the sentence. Not that a comma is used when the time clause comes first in a sentence.

e.g.

As soon as the taxi arrives, we’ll be able to leave for the airport. OR

We will be able to leave for the airport as soon as the taxi arrives.

Sometimes the present progressive is used in a time clause to express an activity that will be in progress in the future.

e.g.

While I am traveling in Europe next year, I’m going to save money by staying in cheap hotels.

Occasionally, the present perfect is used in a time clause. The present perfect in the time clause emphasizes the completion of one act before a second act occurs in the future.

e.g.

I will go to bed after I finish my work. OR

I will go to bed after I have finished my work.


Checkpoint 2

Choose the best answer.

Which wor could best replace eminent in "Besides being an eminent author, Mark Twain was also a talented speaker"?
Which word could best replace shrewd in "Mark Twain was also a talented speaker, who told stories to audiences with the same shrewd humor he showed in his fiction."?
An anecdote in "On one occasion, Twain related a personal anecdote about stage fright." is best described as______?
To cajole in "It seems he was attending his daughter's first singing performance, when the audience cajoled him into speaking." is to ______.
An impromptu speech is one that is ______.
Ensure in "Twain gave an impromptu talk about the steps he took to ensure success during his own first appearance on stage." means ______.
When a person looks intently, he or she looks ______.
A manuscript in "At last I began. I had the manuscript tucked under a United States flag in front of me where I could get at it in case of need." is a ______.
Another word for awed in "They sat silent and awed. I had touched them." is ______.
Agonizing in "Well, after the first agonizing five minutes, my stage fright left me, never to return." is best described as ______.

Using the Present Progressive and the Simple Present to Express Future Time

The present progressive may be used to express future time when the idea of the sentences concerns a planned event or definite intention. A future meaning for the present progressive tense is indicated either by future time words in the sentence or by the context.

e.g.

Sam has already made his plans. He’s leaving at noon tomorrow.

My wife has an appointment with a doctor. She is seeing Dr. North next Tuesday.

The simple present can also be used to express future time in a sentence concerning events that are on a definite schedule or timetable. These sentences usually contain future time words. Only a few verbs are used in this way: e.g. open, close, begin, end, start, finish, arrive, leave, come, return…

e.g.

The museum opens at 10:00 tomorrow morning.

Classes begin next week.

John’s plane arrives at 6:05 P.M. next Monday.


Future Progressive

The future progressive expresses an activity that will be in progress at a time in the future.

e.g.

I will begin to study at seven. You will come at eight. I will be studying when you come.

Will + the progressive can be used with an activity that is not in progress at a time in the future. It is common in spoken English when the speaker wants to sound more polite or softer.

e.g.

I’ll be picking Susie up early for a dentist appointment.

We’ll be contacting you shortly about your inquiry.


Future Perfect and Future Perfect Progressive

The future perfect expresses an activity that will be completed before another time or event in the future.

e.g.

I will graduate in June. I will see you in July. By the time I see you, I will have graduated.

The future perfect progressive emphasizes the duration of an activity that will be in progress before another time or event in the future.

e.g.

I will go to bed at 10:00 P.M. Ed will get home at midnight. I will have been sleeping for two hours by the time Ed gets home.


Chapter 3 Quiz

Choose the best answer.

Della is sobbing at the beginning of the story because she ______.
Which of the following terms best describes Jim and Della’s marriage?
Della’s biggest treasure is her ______.
Della visits Mme. Sofronie because Della wants to ______.
What does Della buy after leaving Mme. Sofronie?
Which word best describes Jim’s first reaction to Della after she returns from Mme. Sofronie?
Della cries when she sees the combs because she had ______.
When Jim gets Della’s present, he ______.
After Jim receives his present, Della learns that he ______.
According to the author, the Magi are ______.
The situational irony in this story comes from the fact that the ending is _______.
The surprise ending is that ______.
The dramatic irony in this story comes from the fact that ______.
The story's irony is based on the fact that life is ______.
What's the mearning of 'scrutiny' in "Della did not know why Jim’s scrutiny made her so uncomfortable."?
What's the meaning of 'nimble' in "Della’s nimble fingers opened the parcel in no time flat."?
What's the mearning of 'depreciate' in "Della’s beautiful hair would make the rarest jewels depreciate in value."?
What's the meaning of 'discreet' in "At first, Jim was discreet about his secret."?
What's the meaning of 'ransacking' in "Della spent the day ransacking the stores for Jim’s present."?
Which of the following words is most different in mearning from the others?
Which of the following words is most different in mearning from the others?
Which of the following words is most different in mearning from the others?
Which of the following words is most different in mearning from the others?
Which of the following words is most different in mearning from the others?
Which of the following words is most different in mearning from the others?
Which of the following words is most different in mearning from the others?
Which of the following words is most different in mearning from the others?
Which of the following words is most different in mearning from the others?
Which of the following words is most different in mearning from the others?
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