English Plus Series | 100 Events That Changed the World 60-71

Introduction

In this episode from our series, 100 Events That Changed the World, we will talk about 10 important events from women getting the vote, to World War I, the invention of television and other important events that changed the history of the world.


Audio Episode


Transcript

Welcome to a new English plus episode. In this episode, we’re going to continue the series that we’ve been dragging on for too long. And that is 100 events that change the world. Last year, I talked about the first 60 events, and starting from this week, and of course, I will continue it in the coming weeks, I will finish the series and we will start a new series. This I promise you, of course, this series and the series that comes after it is going to be available for everybody. But don’t forget, if you are a patron, you will get exclusive premium series and a little heads up about that the first premium series is coming out next week, and it’s going to be about the 100 greatest mysteries of the world, it is going to be a very exciting series. So if you’re interested, you can become a patron and not only get those exclusive series, but you will also have the monthly English plus magazine access to the private discussion forum on Discord and much more is coming your way in 2022. Don’t forget that you can find the transcript of this episode on my website English plus podcast.com. So today, we’re going to continue our series 100 events that change the history of the world. And today we’re going to talk about some exciting events, we will start talking about women getting the vote and then we will talk about the first modern Olympics that was held in Athens. After that we will talk about Freud, Jung and the unconscious the power of the unconscious that they uncovered. Then we will talk about the launching of aviation. After that we will talk about the tragic event that advances seismology and continuing with tragic events we will talk about World War One. And after that, of course, there should be a place for Einstein who attempts to create a theory of everything. Then we will talk about the Balfour Declaration, the invention of television. And finally, we will talk about the energy boom that begins with the Iraqi oil strike. So are you interested yet? Join me in this episode, and I will tell you about all that. Now without further ado, let’s start talking about the very first event women get the vote.

Well, the very first event for today’s episode for today’s series episode is when women got the vote. And that happened in 1893. Now British author Mary Wollstonecraft, who lived between 1759 and 1797 first raised the question of women’s rights in 1792. In her book, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, and this book was really the foundation of modern feminism. She advocated for social and educational equality with men. If girls were given the same educational opportunities as boys, she wrote, they would not only improve at their traditional roles as mother and wife, but they would also become capable professionals. 50 years after wolf stone crafts book was published. American activist Elizabeth Cady Stanton’s Declaration of Sentiments demanding more rights for women in education jobs, and the right to vote was signed by 68 women and 32 men in Seneca Falls New York at the first women’s rights convention in 1848. Her declaration modeled after the declaration of independence did not immediately change society’s attitudes toward women. But it did define the new women’s rights movement, which had grown out of the abolitionist and temperance movements of the day. In 1869, Stanton and her fellow activist Susan B. Anthony started the National Women’s Suffrage Association. Up until then, the voices in favor of the vote had been loud but few a number now more significant strides were made, including advocating an amendment to the US Constitution, organizing demonstrations and hearings before Congress. Despite these pioneering efforts that had inspired movements in Europe and Canada, American women would not be the first vote rather, New Zealand became the first self governing country to grant full suffrage to women after Kate Shepherd of the Women’s Christian Temperance Union led 30,000 women to sign a petition demanding the right to vote, which led to the country’s passage of the Electoral Act of 1893. Between 902 and 919, Australia, Finland, Norway, Denmark, Canada, Austria, Germany, Poland, Russia and the Netherlands followed suit. Finally in 1920, after two unsuccessful attempts in the Senate, the 19th Amendment granting America women the right to vote was passed. In England the battle for women’s suffrage was longer and more violent. In 1910 Emilien Pankhurst led a march on parliament to demand the vote. When the police ordered the women to go home, a fight ensued for hours. For the next several years. suffragists were imprisoned and brutally force fed when they went on hunger strikes. It took World War One to quiet the conflict. As many suffragists including bankers turned to supporting the war effort, British women were finally granted equal voting rights in 1928. During the course of the 20th century, more and more countries around the globe granted women the right to vote, Saudi Arabia was the most recent to do so in 2015, there remained two exceptions, Brunei, which is governed by an absolute monarchy, and Vatican City where women cannot be Cardinals and thus cannot vote in papal elections. After gaining the vote, the women’s movement turned to the questions of equal opportunity, equal pay equal rights and free choice. significant gains have been made. Women have led countries such as Germany, Chile, the Philippines and Britain, they run major corporations like General Motors, and yet today in the United States, they still earn on average only 78% of what men do. So there’s still a long way to get to what they deserve. But hopefully, they’re almost there. And that was our first event in the series. And that was event 61 For those of you who are still counting, because we stopped last time at event 60. So this is event 61. And now we will move on to talk about event 62. And that has to do with sports and athletics, and that is when Athens holds the first modern Olympics that’s coming next.

So that 62nd event when Athens holds the first modern Olympics, well that happened in 1896, nearly 1500 years after Roman Emperor Theodosius the first banned pagan festivals like the Olympic Games, French educator Pierre de coopertown, founded the International Olympic Committee in Paris in 1894. The International Olympic Committee’s objective was to organize the first modern Olympic Games which took place in Athens, Greece two years later, the Olympics was first held in Olympia, Greece in 776 BC, organized in honor of the gods Zeus. It was composed of both athletic contests and religious rituals for traces of various lengths, boxing, wrestling, chariot racing, and the pentathlon, which included long jump, javelin and discus throwing or the main events, the victor was awarded an olive branch and received recognition all over Greece, the games were so prized that during times of warfare, a temporary Olympic Truce was acknowledged to allow safe travel to and from Olympia. From the start of the modern games. The International Olympic Committee wanted to emulate the athletic and peaceful tradition of the ancient games, but recast it as a secular event since 1908. To underscore the events global nature, the opening ceremonies have included a parade featuring each country’s delegation and an artistic program showcasing the host country today the Olympics include the games of the Olympiad, known as the Summer Olympic Games, and the Olympic Winter Games, which began in 1924. So that was the 62nd event that changed the world. And now for the 63rd event. And in this event, we will talk about Freud, Jung and the unconscious that’s coming next.

So this event is about Freud, Jung and the unconscious. Well, I know that some of you don’t like what Freud said about the human nature and everything. But you cannot deny that he started a thing that developed into the psychology we know today. But this man, although he did not invent psychology, or he did not start psychology in the first place, but we can say that he advanced psychology to a whole new level, and whether you agree with him or you disagree with him, that’s another matter. He was an important milestone in the field of psychology, and something that really changed the history of the world. So let’s talk about it. Austrian psychiatrist Sigmund Freud who lived from 1856 to 1939, is known as the father of psycho analysis or talking cure, he introduced the concepts of the ID or instinct, ego or reality, and super ego or morality. If the ego cannot solve a conflict between the ID and the super ego, it will deploy a defense mechanism to burry the conflict in the unconscious. In order to overcome these conflicts which cause mental illness he believed in free association to reveal what is hidden in the unconscious in his masterpiece and interpretation of dreams, published in 1900. He wrote that dreams are the royal road to the unconscious and the key to his talking cure Freud’s protegees with psychologist Carl Gustav Jung, who lived from 1875 to 1961, introduced a new school of thought with his book psychology types, he identifies the introvert and the extrovert as different psychological ways of resolving tension between the outer and inner world. Freud viewed unconscious urges as selfish while Jung thought they were positive forces. Jung also proposed the existence of a collective unconscious as a course of creativity universally shared archetypes, and promoted individuation, a strong sense of one’s identity in connection with society. Although Jung came to view man’s psychology differently from Freud, both men’s work altered our understanding of human behavior. So that was our 63rd event, Freud and Jung and the unconscious what’s coming next, we’re going to fly next and we’re going to talk about the 64th event flight at Kitty Hawk that launches aviation that’s coming next. Stay tuned, don’t go away.

So our next event is about flight and not any flight. We’re talking about the flight at Kitty Hawk that launches aviation that happened 1903 But first, let’s talk about the first human flight. Well, it happened over 1000 years earlier than that date. The first human flight occurred in 875 ad when the Muslim poet and engineer a best urban furnace built a flying machine of silk and feathers. Although he was ultimately unsuccessful, he managed to stay aloft for 10 minutes in the skies near Cordova, Spain, before crashing because his device lacked a tail nearly 1000 years later, in 1783. The Montgolfier brothers Joseph and Jack designed the first hot air balloon, which flew five and a half miles from the center of Paris to Butoh Cal outside the city’s ramparts. It was the first successful manned flight. It took another 120 years for another set of brothers Orville and Wilbur Wright bicycle shop owners from Ohio to build the first powered airplane. In 1903. After constructing three unpowered gliders, the brothers built the flyer 21 feet long with a 40 foot wingspan and powered by a simple four cylinder engine they had designed without its pilot on board. The contraption weighed 605 pounds on December the 17th 1903. The flyer lifted off its launching rail on the windy sands of Kitty Hawk, North Carolina and flew for 12 seconds before studying to the ground. 120 feet away. It did not travel far, but succeeded in making the first controlled piloted flight of a heavier than air machine. The public was skeptical about the practicality of the flying machine. But the methodical Wright Brothers perfected the design during the next two years, increasing its stability to the point where it could be flown in a circle and stay in the air for as long as 39 minutes. Initially, planes were mainly used for military purposes just like any other new invention, but anyway, the new invention was flown both for reconnaissance and battle missions in World War One between 1914 and 1918. In 1913, the British and Italian designed the first aircraft specifically built for bombing by 1914, the French aviator Roland Garros figured out how to attach a machine gun to the front of his plane so that it remained steady. aviators known as aces became famous for their intense air battles. World War Two from the Blitz to the dropping of the atomic bomb over Hiroshima and Nagasaki was possible only because of the development of long range bombers and the fighter jets that protected them. In 1940, the Seattle based Blaine manufacturer Boeing introduced the straddle liner, the first civilian plane to have a pressurized cabin which made flying much more comfortable. Nearly a decade later, British aviation pioneer Jofre to have a land designed the first jetliner in 1949 known as the comet its jet engine allowed it to climb faster and higher making long distance air travel seem within reach but the Thomas was in several tragic accidents and quickly withdrawn from service. There was no turning back from the jet age However, after pan-am inaugurated transatlantic service between New York and Paris in 1957, using the speedy, comfortable and safe Boeing 707 The future of aviation promises are plenty flying cars which Slovakia AeroMobil based in Austria began selling in 2014 for $300,000 civilian drones, which potentially could be used commercially by companies like Amazon for shipment deliveries, and hoverboards, which are fictional vehicles which were featured in the film Back To The Future Part Two that several inventors currently have in prototype. So no one knows what the future of aviation is going to be. But it is full of potential and great inventions are about to come if they’re not already being worked on at the moment. So that was about the 64th event. What about the 65th event? We will talk about something tragic, of course, here we’re talking about earthquakes, but this specific earthquake advances seismology,

that’s coming next. Don’t go away. This event happened in 1906. It’s one of the most shocking earthquakes we’re talking about here. And this one struck the San Francisco Bay Area on April the 18th 1906. The quake estimated around 707 On today’s Richter scale, ruptured the center andreas fault for 296 miles north and south of the city. It was felled for about 850 miles from Los Angeles to Coos Bay, Oregon, and as far inland as central Nevada. The initial tremors destroyed San Francisco’s water mains, leaving no way to combat fires that destroyed almost five square miles of the city. It flattened 28,000 buildings killed an estimated 3000 people and cost $500 million in damage. San Francisco planners started over with a clean slate and replaced what had been haphazardly built since the 1849 gold rush with a more logical city structure. after the quake. American geophysicist Harry fielding Reed examined the center andreas fault and developed an elastic rebound theory. It posits that rocks on either side of a fault or subject to pressure which causes them to deform over time, everything remains stable until friction is overcome. Then the rocks slip causing an earthquake. This theory and the Richter scale, which was invented in 1935, helped advance the science of seismology. Of course it was caused by a tragic incident. But at least we got something useful out of this tragic incident, not like wars, which we’re going to talk about the first big one next, which we still haven’t learned anything from, I will have to say, anyway, seismology, the advances in seismology, that was the 65th event that changed the world. Now we will talk about another tragic event and that is World War One. And that is our 66th event. So stay tuned, don’t go away. Are you serious about your vocabulary building, if you really want to take your vocabulary to the next level, and make 2022 the year when you build a huge active vocabulary bank, I have just the thing you need. I have created two vocabulary building book series. The first book series is crossword puzzle vocabulary building. And the second is word search games and activities with carefully designed activities that will make sure you remember the new words you learn in context. With 10 books in each series. And with more than 1000 new words in each book, your active English vocabulary will get much better this year. The books are available on Amazon, you can find the links in the description. But if you want to see a sample of the books first, there is another link where you can see for yourself and know for sure that these books are the ones you really need to improve your vocabulary before you buy them on Amazon, build your English vocabulary in 2022 and never be lost for words anymore with English plus vocabulary building book series. So our 66th event, the Archduke assassination that sparked World War One, and that obviously changed the world not for the better for the worse. But hopefully by talking about those events, we may learn that violence and wars lead absolutely nowhere except for destruction. A lot of people did a lot of tragedy that we don’t need. Anyway, we’re talking about history, we’re talking about the 100 events that changed the world or change the history of the world. And we come to number 66 And that is the Archduke assassin A nation that sparks World War one that happened in 1914. Well, let’s

go back a little bit earlier in 1911, three years after Austria Hungary had a next Bosnia Herzegovina, a secret Serbian society called the Black Hand was formed to unify all Balkan Serbs into a single state through violent terrorism. When Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the throne of Austria Hungary visited Sarajevo on June the 28th 1914. The group was determined to kill him. After a failed first attempt by a grenade, a conspirator shot him and his wife when they passed in a car later the same day in response on July the 28th 1914, Austria Hungary declared war on Serbia and World War One had begun. War spread through Europe via alliances Germany, Austria Hungary and Italy were obligated by a secret agreement known as the Triple Alliance to defend one another against attacks from Russia and France. Russia was not formally allied with Serbia, but it responded to its call for help and mobilize this forces on July the 30th 1914. The following day, Germany declared war on Russia. On August 3 1914, Germany invaded Belgium and declared war on France, which brought great britain allied with France into the war on August 4, on April the sixth 1917, after discovering that Germany was trying to incite Mexico to attack it, the United States entered the war. And as they called it, the war to end all wars ended on November the 11th 1918, the loss of life was staggering. 8 million soldiers dead with 22 million wounded and 7.7 million missing. So that so cold war to end all wars, it didn’t end anything. Because, of course, you all know that there was World War Two that happened 21 years later, we’re not going to talk about it in today’s episode, but we will talk about it in upcoming episodes. But the point is, all these people did all these civilians dead people missing no one knows what happened to them. Of course, they’re dead. But the big question, Was it worth it? And maybe now we’re talking about it. 100 years later? Did it change anything? Well, that question is for you to answer. But that was the 66th event that changed the world, the start of World War One. And now we’ll talk about the 67th event that changed the world. And we’ll talk about Einstein and his attempt to create a theory of everything. So stay tuned, don’t go away. So what’s the big deal about Einstein? Everybody says Einstein, you think you’re like Einstein or whatever? was Einstein that genius? Well, he was actually he attempted to create a theory of everything. And that happened in 1916. Now, ever since Archimedes, the ancient Greek scientists tried to explain all natural phenomena, scientists have attempted to create a theory of everything German born theoretical physicist Albert Einstein, who lived between 1879 to 1955 spent years trying to do just that. Along the way, he changed our understanding of the universe. Early in his career, Einstein worked as a clerk for the patent office in Zurich, Switzerland. Here he developed his ideas about the relationship between mass and energy made famous by the equation E equals MC squared, or energy equals mass multiplied by the speed of light squared. In 1916, after he became the director of the Kaiser Vilhelm Institute at the University of Berlin, he published his theory of general relativity, which said that gravity as well as motion can affect time and space. The London Times proclaimed it and you theory of the universe in 1932, Einstein emigrated to America and joined the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey. There he spent many years developing the unified field theory or UFT, for short, which tried to incorporate all the laws of the universe physics and relativity into a unified framework. Although you ft remained unfinished when he died. Einstein’s reputation has only grown as space satellites confirm principles of his cosmology. So that was our 67th event for today’s episode, and we will talk next about the 68th event. And that was the Balfour Declaration that creates the Jewish homeland that’s coming next don’t go away.

This event happened in 1917. In November 1917, British Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour declared in a letter to banker Baron Walter Rothschild that his government favored the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, provided that the rights of Arabs living there would be protected. It was the first time Britain had sided politically with Jewish scientists and the letter was widely published in the press. The Arab majority in Palestine, then allied with the British were outraged. They believed the British had promised them Palestine and return for their support against the Ottoman Empire. The Jews believed that the Balfour Declaration incorporated into the several peace treaty promised them the same land from 1920 to 1947. Britain was in charge of the Palestine mandate as the area was known and Jews seeking refuge from religious persecution in Europe began to immigrate into Palestine in substantial numbers. In 1947, the United Nations proposed separating Palestine into two states, one Jewish and one Arab. On May the 14th 1948 Zionist politicians declared an independent state of Israel in Palestine along boundaries proposed by the United States, despite the fact that the Arab government rejected a two state plan. War began the next day between Israel and the surrounding Arab countries, there has been little peace in the region since and that was the 68th event that changed the history of the world. And it’s still changing it. Let’s face it, but we’ll move next to talk about the 69th event that changed the history of the world. And this one has to do with something everyone loves at home that television will talk about the invention of the television. That’s our 69th event for today’s episode. Stay tuned. Don’t go away. Well, the invention of the television everybody loves television, right? The invention of the television. When did that happen? Do you think it happened 50 years ago or 60 years ago? No, actually a little bit longer than that. It happened in 1925 Scottish engineer John Logie Baird first broadcaster recognizable picture onto a screen in 1925 Baird’s device called a televisor used mechanical technology developed in the late 1800s by German engineering student Paul nibco. The mechanical scanner a rotating disc with holes in it through which light reflected by the televised objects activated a photo electric cell made of selenium which required extremely bright light, but did not produce high resolution images. Nonetheless, mechanical TVs were sold in the United States, Britain and the Soviet Union between 1928 and 1934. In 1927, American inventor Philo Franz Werth and Russian American inventor Vladimir is working independently solved the resolution problem by developing electronic scanners using cathode ray tubes or CRT. The first electronic TV employing CRT was manufactured in 1934. And by 1942, when World War Two stopped their production nearly 30,000 sets had been made. In the decade after World War Two TV ownership grew from 0.5% of the US population to 55.7% in 1956, and 90% by 1962, largely due to the brilliant marketing of television manufacturer RCA, the debut of such hits as the Ed Sullivan Show Candid Camera and Meet the Press cemented its appeal for family entertainment. And as a purveyor of popular culture dope. That was our 69th event. And we still have one event to go in this episode, the 70th event and that has to do with the energy boom that begins with the Iraqi oil strike. That’s coming next.

Don’t go away. We’ll talk about this event and we’ll wrap up the episode. So the 70th event that changed the world energy boom begins with the Iraqi oil strike that happened in 1927. Iraq’s first petroleum oil strike occurred on October the 14th 1927. At Kirkuk. From the start, Western companies such as Gulf Oil pumped and exported nearly all of the Middle East fuel, which they refined into gasoline. It powered the burgeoning auto industries and became the most important commodity in the 20th century industrial world. In 1960, Iraq and four other oil producing nations founded the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries or OPEC, when the major Western oil distributors attempted to reduce the price of oil, the cartel controls the worldwide price and supply of crude oil, its depth of power can largely impact the worldwide economy in 2014. For example, OPEC flooded the market with low cost oil in an attempt to discourage the United States and Canada from drilling hard to extract crude oil From North Dakota shale formations and Alberta’s oil sands, this move helped keep gas prices low across the United States, but wreaked havoc with the economies of Russia and Venezuela. And the oil war continues. And you all know, as long as we still have oil on this good Earth, these conflicts will never stop, because there’s money involved there billions of dollars involved in this business. But anyway, that will be everything for today’s episode. I hope you’ve enjoyed the 10 events. And I hope you enjoyed the return of the series, because I know you’ve been waiting for me to finish the series for a long time. But I’m here right now I’m going to finish it. And I promise I’m going to finish it in the next three weeks. Because we still have three episodes to go, we’re going to talk about 30 more events that changed the world. And with those 30 events, we will have talked about 100 events that changed the world. If this is the first time you’re listening to the series, you can go back in the episodes and search for 100 events that changed the world and you will find all the episodes back then. So that was everything I wanted to share with you. In today’s episode. Don’t forget that you can visit my website English plus podcast.com not only for the transcript of this episode, but there are great learning opportunities you can find there is the activity center with daily fun activities, quizzes and logic and math puzzles. And if you decide to become a patron on Patreon, there is a lot more available we have since we’re talking about series. In today’s episode, we have premium series that are only for patrons and starting from next week we are going to have the first premium series that is 100 of the greatest mysteries around the world. So become a patron and you will get that next week along with other things like the English plus monthly magazine, the private discussion forum on Discord, and much more. All of these benefits are yours when you become a patron. All the links you need are in the description of the episode. What are you waiting for? Take your English and learning to the next level and never stop learning with English plus podcast.com. Thank you very much for listening to this episode. This is your host Danny I will see you next time.


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