A Very Short Introduction to Autism
I am using an automatic transcript service as it is not possible for me to do it on my own and I cannot afford human transcription at the moment. The service claims to have about 95% accuracy, which means there will still be some mistakes, so my apologies for having a less than perfect transcript, but I hope I can afford human transcription soon and I will solve this problem. However, the service is pretty good, and the transcript is almost perfect.
Welcome to a new episode from English plus podcast. In today’s episode, we are going to talk about myths and legends, and we will talk about one of the most famous legendary characters ever. And that is King Arthur. But before I talk about King Arthur in this exciting episode, let me tell you about our premium offering for our patrons on Patreon.
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[00:01:14] Now, that being said, let’s start with the topic of this episode and that is King Arthur. King Arthur was a legendary ruler of Britain whose life and deeds became the basis for a collection of tales known as the Arthurian legends. As the leading figure in British mythology King Arthur is a national hero and a symbol of Britain’s heroic heritage.
[00:01:38] What his appeal is not limited to Britain, the Arthurian story, which it’s elements of mystery, magic, love war, adventure, betrayal, and fate has touched the popular imagination and has become part of the world’s shared mythology. The Celts blended stories of the warrior. Arthur, with those of much older mythological characters, such as Gwydion, a Welsh priest, King old Welsh tails and poems place.
[00:02:05] Arthur in traditional Celtic legends, including a hunt for the enchanted wild pig and a search for a magic cold run or kettle. In addition, Arthur is surrounded by a band of loyal followers who greatly resemble the disciples of fin the legendary Irish hero. As time went on the old Celtic elements of King Arthur story were buried under new layers of myth.
[00:02:30] Some versions claimed that Arthur was descended from a NACE, the legendary founder of Rome, this detailed, linked, British mythology with that of ancient, Greece and Rome. As Britain came under Anglo-Saxon rule. Arthur became an idealized leader, a symbol of national identity who has once United all the warring chiefdoms of the British Isles.
[00:02:54] In some accounts, he led his armies across Europe, much like Alexander, the great of the ancient world. Christianity also played a role in the stories about Arthur. Some scholars have compared Arthur, a good man betrayed by those closest to him, to Jesus who was betrayed by his trusted disciple Judas in time.
[00:03:14] Arthur story would be interpreted as a tale of Christian virtues and vices. Modern scholars can trace the changes in King Arthur stories through the works of particular medieval writers. The most important of these writers was Geoffrey of Monmouth who lived and work between about 1100 and 1,155. His history of the Kings of Britain contains the most detailed account of King Arthur written up to that time.
[00:03:42] Joffrey drew up Welsh folklore and possibly upon earlier histories, but his Arthur, a conquering national hero is mainly his own literary creation. Joffrey’s work introduced King Arthur to a wide audience. Soon English and European writers were producing their own versions of Arthur’s life and adding new characters, adventures and details.
[00:04:06] Sir, Thomas an English writer wove various strands of myths into a lengthy volume called Lamotte doc too. The death of Arthur that placed King Arthur firmly in the medieval world published in 1485. It became the best known and most widely read account of the legendary King modern images of Arthur illustrated in books, movies, comic books and cartoons are largely based on Mallory’s story.
[00:04:34] Arthurian legends are filled with themes, common to ancient stories shared around the globe. Although supernatural elements such as magic wizards and giants play key roles in the story at its heart is the simple drama of a man struggling to live by the highest standards in a world of human weakness.
[00:04:53] According to Mallory. Arthur was the son of a King named Arthur Penn dragon who fell in love with engrain wife of of Cornwall with the aid of a wizard named Merlin who disguised himself as Gore Lewis and conceived a child with grain. Now, some versions say that author married a grain after Gordon Lewis died, their child born in Denta.
[00:05:14] Joel castle in Cornwall was named Arthur. Merlin took charge of the boys upbringing arranging for a night named sir Hector to raise Arthur as his foster son. When King Arthur died, he left no known heir to the throne. It was said that the person who succeeded in pulling the magical sword Excalibur from the stone that held it would be the next King, the greatest Knights in the land accepted the challenge, but non-managed to extract the sword.
[00:05:43] When sir Hector brought young Arthur to London, the boy was able to withdrew the sword with ease, thus proving that he was meant to be King of England at a later point in Arthur story. However, Mallory says that he received the sword from a mysterious figure called the lady of the Lake. Either way Arthur became King and gained possession of Excalibur.
[00:06:05] The wise magician, Marilyn helped him defeat the rebellious, lesser Kings and Nobles who did not want Arthur to be King King. Arthur was visited by more gals wife of King. Lot of the Orkney islands, more girls, a daughter of a grain was Arthur’s half sister among her children was Gwane Arthur’s nephew, who later became one of his loyal supporters.
[00:06:27] More gals then bore a younger son Madrid in some versions of the story. Madrid was Arthur’s child. The result of a relationship with his half sister Arthur fell in love with Gwyneth veer, daughter of Kingley autograph of camel yard in Southern England. But Merlin said that Arthur must fight in France before he could marry as a result.
[00:06:48] Arthur and were married after his triumphant return from France as a present. When whenever years parents gave Arthur a large round table for the Knights who made up his court, this round table became the symbol of the fellowship of the brave Knights who went on quests to defeat evil, help those in danger and keep the kingdom safe.
[00:07:09] Among their quests was the search for the Holy grail. The cup used by Jesus at the last supper. King Arthur made Camelot the seat of his court and Merlin built a castle with a special chamber for the round table. After a time though, trouble arose queen and sir Lancelot Arthur’s best friend and champion became lovers Madrid accused the queen of having an affair and offense punishable by death.
[00:07:35] Lancelot defended her honor successfully, but the conflict destroyed the unity of the court. Some nights sided with Arthur and others with more dread after several battles, Gwinnett via return to Arthur Arthur left Madrid in charge of the kingdom. While he went off to fight a military campaign. While the King was away, more dread plotted against him, planning to marry Gwen of ear and become ruler of Britain.
[00:07:59] When Arthur returned and learned of the plot, he challenged Madrid to a battle. Arthur and Mordrid assembled their armies near the town of Salisbury in Southern England. While the two commanders discussed these terms. Someone saw a snake in the grass and drew his sword in a flash. All the Knights drew their weapons and started to fight.
[00:08:19] Author killed more dread, but suffered his own mortal wound in the process. He asked the sole survivor of the battle, sir, a bed of ear to take Excalibur and throw it into a particular Lake at first Serbia V or hesitated, but eventually he followed Arthur’s command. As he did. So a hand Rose from beneath the water, the hand of the lady of the Lake and caught the sword, then a mysterious barge beard, sir, better vier placed King Arthur on the barge, which carried him away to Avalon a mythical and sacred Island.
[00:08:51] The West there, he would be cared for by Morgan Le Fay and healed of his wounds. Legend said that he would return one day when England, once again needed him, King Arthur was born somewhere in the Misty region where history and imagination meet the original legends may have been based on a real person, but scholars have yet to determine who that person was, whether real or imaginary.
[00:09:14] The story of Arthur has been shaped by the ancient myths and literary creations that developed around him. The quarterly medieval King, who appears in the best known versions of Arthur story is a creation of a later time, almost 1500 years after the first known reference to Arthur was written scholars still debate whether or not Arthur was based on a real person.
[00:09:37] Some believe that King Arthur May be based on a Romano British war leader, possibly named oratorios who defended the native Celtic people of Britain against Anglo-Saxon invaders. After Rome withdrew its troops from the British Isles in four 10 CE references to this hero appear in a book written around five 50 by a Caltech monk named Gilda’s in a work by an NAS, a Celtic historian of around 800.
[00:10:03] And in a genealogy from Wales compiled around nine 55 from earlier sources, according to these accounts are notorious fought a series of battles against the Saxons, sometime between 505 37, a British researcher named Joffrey Ash proposed a different identity for Arthur. He based his theory on a letter that aroma Nobel men wrote around four 62, a British King named reauthorize linking this letter with medieval accounts of Arthur’s deeds in France.
[00:10:33] Ash suggested that the optimist who led a British army into France was the man upon whom the Arthurian legends are based. King. Arthur has also been linked with Glastonbury in Southwestern Britain. All traditions claimed that early British Christians founded and Abbey in the first or second century CE where the earliest stone structure established in the seventh century.
[00:10:56] The Abbey stood until a fire destroyed it in 1184, according to legend Arthur and his queen Gwen heavier were buried nearby Arthur Stone bore. These words here lies Arthur King. That was King. That shall be some Chronicles. Say that King Henry, the second order, the tomb opened in 1150 and that it contained Arthur skeleton and sword modern scholars though, have been unable to separate fact from legend.
[00:11:23] One of the main themes of the King. Arthur legend is the notion that might makes right or that strength and power can be used to enforce a moral code. This moral code was known as chivalry and included traits, such as generosity, bravery, courtesy, and respect toward women. For a time Camelot deceit of King Arthur skort seemed to be a perfect realm free from wickedness.
[00:11:49] The round table represented the unbroken unity of the Knights and their common purpose. However, the very Knights charged with maintaining a moral standard ended up failing to uphold the standard themselves. Aside from the numerous retellings of the legends of King Arthur in classic literature, the character has remained popular in contemporary culture and art.
[00:12:10] His traditional story has been brought to newer generations by books, such as th whites, the once and future King in 1958. And John Steinbeck’s the acts of King Arthur and his noble Knights in 1976, which attempted to modernize the language of the tails for contemporary audiences. King Arthur has also proven to be a popular character in film.
[00:12:31] Several versions of his legend have been created including the 1963 Disney animated version, the sword in the stone based on T H White’s novel and the more historically based 2004 film King Arthur. Camelot in 1960 was a successful Broadway musical production that was adapted to film in 1967. Excalibur a 1981.
[00:12:55] John Boreman film based on the writings of Thomas Mallory is considered by some to be the finest adaptation of the King. Arthur legend. Many other books and films are based far more loosely on the legend of King Arthur, or simply include King Arthur as a character. Examples include Mark Twain’s novel, a Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur score, 1889 and films such as Monty Python and the Holy grail, 1975 and Shrek the third, 2007.
[00:13:22] Now I want you to think and consider this question. And if you would like to share your answer with us, of course, go to our website, English plus podcast.com. Leave your comment to the posts that you can find the link to in the description of the episode. And we will happily start a conversation about King Arthur.
[00:13:38] My question is this. I think Arthur and his court alleged themselves to behave in accordance with the court of chivalry. The code bound, the Knights to defend women from harm and treat them with honor as part of their nightly duties. Some modern feminists have criticized this attitude because it suggests that women are too weak to defend themselves and are dependent on men for help.
[00:14:00] At the same time, the modern phrase chivalry is dead expresses a regret that men no longer treat women with the kind of respect that was once part of the code of chivalry. Can society have it both ways. Is it possible to treat all members of society with respect without fostering inequality? Some have argued that the death of chivalry is an unavoidable outcome of greater equality between the sexes.
[00:14:24] Do you agree? Why, or why not? I know it’s a big question and that’s the point. It’s a big question. You can say whatever you want, but it is a rich question. So if you would like to share your answers with us, we will definitely answer and discuss you with it. Take the link you can find in description, go to our website.
[00:14:41] The link will take you to a custom post we created for this episode. You will find the transcript of this episode. And of course you can leave your comment so that we can start a discussion about. This topic now with that being said, that is everything I wanted to share with you about King Arthur. Let me remind you again, that if you decide to become a patron of English plus on Patreon, the link is in the description of the episode.
[00:15:02] Take the link, go there, become a patron, support us and get our premium weekly mini series. The mini series we published this week was business English, marketing, eight episode series with a booklet that you can use to practice the things you learn. And next week, we’re going to have 100 events that changed the world.
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[00:15:40] With that being said, this is your host, Danny. I would like to thank you very much for listening to another episode from English plus podcast. I will see you next time.