In this new episode of our series Brain Myths, we’re going to tackle two myths, or questions. Are creative people right brained? And Is mental illness just a chemical imbalance?
I am using an AI service to transcript the episodes and they promise about 95% accuracy levels, so you may find mistakes here an there in the transcript. Sorry about that, but I can’t afford human transcription services at the moment. However, I promise you that the transcript is excellent and it will help catch up on a part you missed in the episode 🙂
is mental illness just a chemical imbalance? are creative people right brained? Well, do you think these are just obvious questions? And the answer is very simple, you might be mistaken because these are the two brain myths that we’re going to debunk today in our brand new episode from our brain myths series. Welcome to English plus podcast. This is your host, Danny. And this is again, our brain myth series, where we talk about brain myths. And we tried to get to the bottom of the questions that we have. And remember our questions for today is mental illness, just a chemical imbalance and our creative people right brain these two questions may sound simple enough to answer just in a couple of words. But trust me, it’s a little more complicated than that. And that’s what we’re going to discuss in today’s episode. I hope you’re excited as much as I am when it comes to brain because when it comes to information about our own brains and how they work and how they don’t work, etc, I just can’t get excited enough. So welcome to this new episode we’re going to start with the very first question is mental illness, just a chemical imbalance that’s coming next, don’t go anywhere, I’ll be right back. Now, we’d like to remind you just before we start that you can find the transcript of this episode on my website, English plus podcast.com. The link is in the show notes, you can take the link, go to the website to check the transcript if you want. And there’s also more on English plus podcast that is worth checking to. Of course, there’s everything that has to do with English plus podcast, the episodes, but there are a lot of other things you can learn and you can have fun while you’re doing it on English plus podcast.com. While you’re there, you will find a lot of content. And I hope that some of it will be to your liking. And also there is exclusive content only for my patrons on the website as well, including the premium episodes and some other content. So if you would like to unlock this content as well, you can become my patron on Patreon. And this way you will be supporting me and at the same time you will get great benefits. The link is also in the show notes, you can take it go to Patreon support me support the show and get great benefits as you do that. And now without further ado, let’s jump right into our very first question for today. And remember, we have two questions not only one but our very first question is mental illness just to chemical imbalance that’s coming next, I’ll be right back.
The notion that the major psychiatric illnesses stem from too much or too little of one neurotransmitter can trace its roots to a time when doctors observed profound effects on a person’s psychiatry well being with the administration of a single drug. The effects of the drugs suggested that there was a fairly straightforward relationship between mental illness and neuro chemistry. But mental illness is a little bit more complicated than that. So first, let’s talk about the chemicals in the brain. To understand how this works, we need to talk about the chemicals in the brain in the first place. There is one major difference between the way that chemicals enter the brain and how they roam around the rest of the body. Your body has a built in protection system. When foreigners invade your body unleashes an immune response to fight them off. The immune system works in a number of ways, but one crude defense mechanism is simply to kill the infected cells. But if a bacterial colony infected your brain cells, and the immune systems response was to kill them off, you’d have a big problem. Instead, we’ve evolved what’s known as the blood brain barrier, which is a physical barrier between the blood circulating in the rest of our bodies and our brain. endothelial cells lining the capillaries in the brain, preventing most compounds from moving between the blood and the cells of the brain. molecules such as oxygen and hormones are small enough to pass through. But most bacteria, viruses and toxins are kept out. This barrier ensures that bacterial infections of the brain are very rare, but it also poses a problem for drug companies that want to alter the balance of chemicals in your brain. You can’t just ingest a pill and expect that compound to make its way into the brain. Getting past the blood brain barrier is a major challenge for pharmaceutical companies. Caffeine for example, gets through because it is so similar to adenosine, which is found throughout the nervous system. Alcohol passes through to because of its electro chemical properties. And luckily, many antidepressants and other psychiatric medications contain compounds that are small enough to get through, but not all of them. Along the blood brain barrier. There are specialized gates that lead in specific larger compounds that are useful to the brain. Still, most pharmaceutical compounds simply get left out. Once a compound does make it through it then needs to actually affect the functioning of the brain. Neuroscientists have focused on how neurotransmitters or the chemicals that are involved in signaling between neurons work. dendrites are the parts of neurons that receive information while axons are the projections that pass on the signal. Both axon and dendrites contain gates along their membranes that selectively allow certain compounds to pass through. Along the dendrites. These gates are called receptors because they are receptive to specific neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters can affect receptors in different ways. But one common effect is to cause the receptor to open a gate that changes the proportion of negative and positive ions inside the neuron, the inside of the cell is slightly more negative than the outside. So positive ions outside the cell are hankering to come into the cell. When the gates open, they can do so this influx causes the inside of the cell to become less negative, or slightly more positive. And if enough gates are opened, the inside of the cell becomes positive enough to pass a threshold and set off an action potential down its own axon, which causes it to release neurotransmitters all along the complex circuitry of the brain. Some neurotransmitters actually block gates, making it less likely that the neuron will send an action potential. And neurotransmitters often bind to different types of receptors. This is in a nutshell, of course, it’s a lot more complicated than that. But in a nutshell, this is about the chemicals in the brain and how they work. But now let’s not forget about the original question that we are discussing here. Is mental illness, just a chemical imbalance? Well, let’s see. Let’s talk about schizophrenia. And later we’re talking about depression. But let’s start with schizophrenia. Well, the term schizophrenia is often misinterpreted to mean split personality. When someone does something out of character, his or her behavior is sometimes described as schizophrenic. Not only is this use of the word offensive to individuals who suffer from the disease, but it’s also simply incorrect. Schizophrenia was originally coined to describe the disordered thinking that can accompany the disease, which is split mind, not split personality. Schizophrenia describes a disease that is extremely heterogeneous. And what does that mean? That means that two patients with the same diagnosis can present with very different symptom profiles. One patient might suffer primarily from positive symptoms, which is like an increase in the frequency or magnitude of certain behaviors, such as delusions and disordered thinking. Another patient with the same diagnosis might show mainly negative symptoms, like an absence or drop in frequency of certain behaviors, such as catatonia, or flat effect, the patient with positive symptoms will look superficially very different from the patient with negative symptoms. Yet these two manifestations of the disease have some underlying things in common schizophrenia runs in families, and the same genes can be expressed in one carrier as mainly positive symptoms, and in another as mainly negative. In addition, the same patient can show more positive symptoms during one episode and more negative ones during another. But the relative frequency of symptoms is also an indicator of how much help drugs can be for a particular patient. That’s because the serendipitous discovery of the drugs that are largely used to treat patients with schizophrenia was related to the treatment of positive symptoms like hallucinations, delusions, and some aspects of disordered thinking. The discovery of anti psychotic medication revolutionized the treatment of people with schizophrenia shifting away from long term institutionalization and toward a combination of psychotherapy, social work, and medications. Because anti psychotic medications can have such a dramatic effect on the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Neuroscientists proposed the theory of the disease based on how they understood the mechanism of action of these drugs. Most anti psychotic medications bind to dopamine receptors, blocking them from the dopamine that the brain produces. So the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia suggests that the disease results from too much activation of a specific set of dopamine receptors called D two. Because dopamine receptors are found all over your brain and different circuits of your brain have different functions. The dopamine hypothesis suggests that positive symptoms are a result of too much dopamine in one pathway, or circuit, and negative symptoms are caused by too much of it in a different pathway. It’s possible that even the distribution of these receptors across the brain is different in individuals with schizophrenia, explaining one of the ways in which the genetic factors might be In operating or the way the genes are expressed, because trauma and hormonal shifts in adolescence might also make a person more likely to develop the disease. So it’s not just about the amount of neurotransmitter in the brain that causes symptoms, how many receptors there are also makes a difference and receptors can be built or lost through gene expression, hormonal signals or traumatic experiences. But notice that the proponents of the chemical imbalance myth are in trouble here. Combating schizophrenia is not as simple as depleting the brain of dopamine, where the dopamine is excessively activating a certain type of receptors matters. And drugs that block dopamine receptors have not been very successful in alleviating negative symptoms. Even so the dopamine hypothesis has other data in favor of it data that seemed to bolster the evidence drawn from the treatment of the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. For example, drugs that mimic dopamine when taken in excess, particularly over long periods of time can cause psychosis or symptoms that resemble those found in patients with schizophrenia. Considering this evidence, the idea that schizophrenia is caused by too much dopamine sounds compelling. But not only is the dopamine hypothesis more nuanced than just a proposal that there is an imbalance of one type of neurotransmitter. There is also emerging evidence that dopamine might not even be the main player. For one thing, many patients don’t respond well to drugs that block D to receptors. Another line of evidence comes from atypical antipsychotic medications. These are newer drugs that cause fewer side effects. They’re more effective than the typical antipsychotics in treating the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, but just as effective at diminishing the positive symptoms. They have been found to be less efficient at blocking D two receptors, and they also affect serotonin, which is another neurotransmitter glutamate, which is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain has also been implicated in schizophrenia. drugs that block glutamate receptors can also induce schizophrenia like symptoms. Nicotine increases levels of glutamate in the prefrontal cortex and is commonly abused by patients with schizophrenia who report that it helps them focus. Scientists studying people with schizophrenia have put forth a glutamate hypothesis of the disease, which is that glutamate keeps dopamine in check. And without enough glutamate, dopamine has a larger influence on brain function than in a healthy person. And symptoms of schizophrenia might be the result. But drugs that increase glutamate levels in patients with schizophrenia have not been very successful at reducing positive symptoms. I know this is getting too complicated. But even To complicate matters further, neurotransmitter levels aren’t the only ways in which the brains of people with schizophrenia are different from those of comparatively Healthy People, volumes of brain matter in certain regions, such as the frontal cortex. And the temporal lobes are smaller in many people with schizophrenia. functional differences, which is the way in which certain tasks activate the brain have also been found in regions such as the frontal and temporal lobes and the hippocampus. And the connections between regions also seem to be different in patients versus controls. So it is not clear whether these neuro anatomical and functional changes are a cause or an effect of the disease, or even the medications themselves. And we don’t yet know what is causing the changes in neurotransmitter efficacy. So the answer is obviously not really, or at least, you know, just like when we talk about those brain Mets. I’m not saying that it is definitely yes or definitely no, but the definite thing about that is we still don’t have a definite answer. So most of the brain myths that we’re going to discuss in our series, I’m not going to give you straight answers, because there are no straight answers. We don’t know that much about the brain yet. And it’s kind of dangerous to just jump to conclusions and generalize things, especially when you think it makes sense. But trust me, even the brain is the center of logic. And without it, we can’t be the reasonable beings we are. But there’s not much in the brain that corresponds to the common logic we think we know. And that’s why we call them myths. So we talked about schizophrenia. Next, we’re going to talk about depression. So don’t go anywhere. I’ll be right back.
So we established that we can’t get a straight answer from just studying schizophrenia, and therefore there is no proof that the mental illness is just a chemical imbalance. But let’s discuss that Furthermore, not in schizophrenia, but in the case of depression, because the chemical in imbalance. Smith is also tossed around liberally with depression. The chemical imbalance theory of depression has its roots in the surrender pedis discovery of tri cyclic antidepressants such as imipramine. We now know that tri cyclic antidepressants work on a class of neurotransmitters called mono, Amiens, just like dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine and these are all affected by the drugs around the time that ImagePro means antidepressant properties were being touted a group of physicians published their finding that a drug designed to treat tuberculosis seem to produce euphoria in some patients. This drug also work on mono Emmons inhibiting the enzyme that breaks them down known as monoamine oxidase. As less of the neurotransmitter is broken down. More of it is available for use by neurons. So administering a monoamine oxidase inhibitor leads to more norepinephrine and serotonin floating around in the brain. Many antidepressant drugs act on norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin, but each neurotransmitter is involved in a different set of brain functions. Norepinephrine modulates attentional focus and general arousal levels. Dopamine is involved in feelings of pleasure, motivation, and working memory. Serotonin can decrease anxiety, obsessive rumination and compulsions. Every one of these functions is implicated in people with depression to different degrees. So psychiatrists are counseled to create a recipe of drugs that matches the symptom profile of a specific patient. If depression were just a chemical imbalance, you’d think that symptom abatement would happen as soon as the chemistry is reset. But with antidepressant drugs, there’s a therapeutic lag, the neurotransmitter levels are altered almost immediately, but it takes weeks for patients to feel better. The reason why is a big conundrum, but it means that it’s not just about restoring chemical balance. And there’s even more patients with depression don’t have low levels of mono Ammons. Many patients even with major depression have the same level of neurotransmitters in their cerebrospinal fluid as their healthy counterparts and lowering levels of mono Ammons in Healthy People doesn’t lead to depression, and some patients experience symptom relief from antidepressants that don’t even act on mono Emmons at least not directly. And cognitive behavioral therapy during which patients work with a therapist to change thought patterns in reactions to negative situations can be just as effective as drug treatment for people with mild or moderate depression, even showing similar neuro anatomical and physiological changes. Perhaps putting the nail in the coffin of the chemical imbalance story of depression. Many patients with mild to moderate depression show as much improvement when taking a placebo as they do with pharmacologically active drugs. And just like in patients with schizophrenia, there’s a long list of other physical differences in the brains of people with depression. Even the way the brain changes in response to experience which is called neuroplasticity is different in some patients. And new approach to treating mental illnesses is the use of genetic information to tailor drugs to the patient. But we should also consider the psychological treatment options, finding other non invasive ways to rewire and reshape the brain with therapy is another promising future direction. So another brain myth for us to consider. The myth is when the chemicals in your brain are out of balance, your brain can’t function properly, but the truth is different. The truth is that neurotransmitter chemicals in the brain are only one part of healthy brain function, and their levels are in constant flux. So the answer to is mental illness just a chemical imbalance where part of it is of course, but it is not just a chemical imbalance. It’s a lot more complicated than that. So I hope you learned something new with that. But that’s not everything. For today’s episode. Remember, we have two questions. We have two myths to debunk every single episode. And the second question, which is the title of the episode, our creative people right brained? Well, I’m sure that you’ve heard that before the right brain is responsible for creativity. The left brain is responsible for logic and math and stuff like that. But is it true? That’s what we’re gonna find out next. So don’t go anywhere. I’ll be right back.
For many people the idea that a person can be proficient in both art which is reserved for right brain dominant people and science where the left brain steers the ship seems nearly impossible. Is there any truth to the idea that we have a dominant hemisphere and that left dominant people are less creative or more logical than right dominant ones? Does tapping into your right hemisphere make you more clear ative, what do you think? For many people, they would argue with you as if they had hard evidence. That is definitely the case. Creative people are definitely right brained and mathematicians are definitely left brain. But it’s not as simple as it sounds. As usual, it’s a brain myth. But it is not about just this is the answer. If it were that simple, I wouldn’t have made a whole series out of it, it would be just like publishing a post on my website. And that would be the end of it. But because it’s a lot more complicated than that, we have it in our brain myth series. So let’s get to the bottom of that. First, let’s understand a little bit more about our right brain versus our left brain. Well, this is an idea that has been overused and misinterpreted by many people. And it is the notion that the left side of your brain is logical and analytical, while your right side is creative. And instead of working together, these two hemispheres are in competition with one another. And if you can tap into your right brain, releasing it from dominance by the left, you can be more creative, or that you need to shut down your overbearing left hemisphere to do something original and artistic. Well, there is evidence that patients with specific lesions to one side of the brain may show a different symptom profile from patients with comparable lesions to the other side, the brain is to some extent modular and that means different brain regions are assigned different roles. But the truth is much more complex than that. Studying groups of lesion patients help neuroscientists discover that certain cognitive functions such as language are localized primarily to one side. This assignment of different functions to the two different hemispheres is known as lateralization. When it comes to our senses and actions. In particular, the two sides of the brain process different sets of information, the left side of space is represented primarily in the right hemisphere, and vice versa. This means that your right hand is controlled by the left side of your brain. And what you see in your left visual field is projected to the back of the right side of your cerebral cortex. The assumption is that if you engage the left side of your body, you will tap into your creative right brain. But there are a few assumptions that such an explanation glosses over. And most of these explanations aren’t even true. Just as you have a dominant hand, most likely, you also have a dominant hemisphere. Actually, because you have a dominant hemisphere, you also have a dominant hand, neuroscientists are still working out the details of how related the lateralization of cognition and handedness really might be and how they develop. And the story is getting more complicated by the day. For people who are right handed, the left hemisphere is the dominant hemisphere, and the left side of the brain contains most of the language function. But if you’re left handed, then there’s only about a 20% chance that your right hemisphere is your dominant hemisphere. And there’s also a 20% chance that both of your hemispheres contain language function. As for the rest of the lefties, they’ve still got about a 50 to 60% chance that most of their language function is on the left side. And even though many language functions rely on an intact left hemisphere, the right hemisphere certainly participates in verbal communication. The right side is much better at deciphering prosody, and accentuation while the left is the home of the grammar police and the dictionary. Before the explosion of neuro imaging research studying patients with lateralized lesions or commercial Ramiz was the best way to figure out what the two sides of the brain might be doing. But tracking activity in the brains of Healthy People. While they are engaging in different tasks as we do with neuro imaging provides another and perhaps more modern window into lateral reality. For example, neuro imaging studies suggests that the two hemispheres might play different roles in emotion processing, with the left hemisphere showing somewhat greater activation for positive emotions and the right hemisphere showing more activity during negative emotional processing. And insight that neuro imaging has offered is that white matter tracts or the wiring diagram of the two hemispheres is different. The wiring of the right hemisphere has been called more efficient because it has greater connectivity between regions. The left hemisphere in contrast seems to be more modular. The wiring difference might explain why the left hemisphere seems to contain regions that operate somewhat more independently and are more specialized than the regions in the right hemisphere, which are involved in more integrative processes such as visual spatial tasks, it’s easier to find specialization in the left than the right hemisphere and here to people looking for evidence for the association between the right brain and creativity and the left brain and logic for into these wiring differences. neuroimaging research has also shown just how communicative the two hemispheres are. Unless that connection between them is severed information is zipping across the hemispheres during the vast majority of tasks that we ask our brains to accomplish. And in many regions, signals passed from one hemisphere to the other more quickly than they do within a single hemisphere. And that means some signals from the left and right prefrontal cortex can be exchanged more efficiently than signals from the back of the brain to the front of the brain in the same hemisphere. And to understand this a little bit more, we’ll have to talk about patients with seizures, to understand what underlies the left and right brain myth, why it’s wrong and how much more interesting. The truth is, we need to go back to a time before neuro imaging were the psychologists who were among the first to suggest that the two hemispheres of the brain might play different roles. In the 1940s two neurosurgeons attempted an experimental procedure to help curb seizures in patients with severe cases of epilepsy. seizures are caused by the spread of abnormal electrical activity in the brain. Usually this activity starts in one part of the brain and spreads across the brain
following the trajectory of neural pathways. When this electrical activity is severe enough and widespread people with epilepsy experienced dangerous and debilitating seizures. In the 1940s. Neurosurgeons reasoned that if they could contain the electrical misfiring to only one side of the brain, the seizures wouldn’t be as severe. They proposed a surgical procedure
that would sever the corpus callosum, which is the information superhighway that connects the two cerebral hemispheres of the brain. By cutting this fiber tract, they believed they could trap the abnormal electrical activity in one hemisphere. Unfortunately, these initial surgeries had no positive effect on their patients. And the technique was quickly abandoned until the early 1960s. That’s when other neurosurgeons working with seizure patients realize that the idea of severing the connections between the two hemispheres of the brain was actually sound. The problem with the initial experiments was that the technique was flawed. In the first surgeries, only the corpus callosum was cut, but there are actually two routes through which abnormal neuronal activity can transfer from one side of the brain to the other. These are the hippocampal and anterior commissures, the neurosurgeons performed new surgeries that sever these additional routes, along with a corpus callosum, the neurosurgeons called these new operations. commissure Ramis, and they found that these procedures successfully curb the spread of seizures in a number of severely epileptic patients. Their success came from being able to fully sever the communication between the two halves of the brain. We don’t do this surgery very often anymore, because the drugs available for curbing epilepsy are much better than they were in the 1960s and less invasive surgical procedures have since been developed. But anyway, let’s talk a little bit more about those commercial Ramiz. Around the same time a neuro psychologist named Roger Sperry, together with his student Michael Gazzaniga began testing the so called split brain patients to find out what aspects of the human mind are processed in each hemisphere of the brain. This pioneering work seeded the left logical and the right creative brain myth. Once neurosurgeons began performing commercial Rotom ease they started producing patients with left and right hemispheres that could no longer exchange information. This means that what their left brain knows the right brain might not and vice versa. Realizing this was the case. Sperry Gazzaniga and other investigators began devising novel ways to query one half of the brain at a time. For example, using the fact that what is in our left visual field is only seen by the right hemisphere, they would show the right hemisphere a series of images very briefly, and then they would ask the patient to respond in some way. The tricky thing about split brain patients is that they compensate for the fact that their two hemispheres operate independently by moving their heads so that anything they see or hear enters both sides of the brain to be able to talk to one hemisphere without the other interfering psychologists studying the patient’s devised a clever apparatus that limits the information that each Hemisphere receives. They could for example, have the patient looking straight ahead and then flash a word to the left or the right and thereby control which hemisphere sees the word. Every time you talk with someone, you’re relying on the left hemisphere of your brain to keep up with and make sense of the exchange. So when the split brain patients were asked what they saw with their right hemisphere, often they would simply say, I don’t know or nothing because the talkative left hemisphere didn’t have have access to what the right hemisphere was seeing. But then if you are asked to choose from a set of alternatives, for example, by pointing to a picture of something that’s associated with a thing that their right brain saw, they would be completely surprised when their left hand instinctively reached out and made a choice or responded to a command. In fact, they often felt as though they were just guessing. And when the patient was asked why he or she performed that particular action, the left brain which dominates speech spontaneously made up a story to explain the behavior, because I think it was the first to suggest that in between these patients actions and their responses, there’s a part of their brains that interprets what they’re doing. He called the storytelling function of the brain, the interpreter, and he localized it to the left hemisphere, along with language. Another term for this type of interpretation. This justification of an action without enough information to know why it was done is called confabulation. There’s only got found that confabulation in split brain patients occurred when the left side of the interpreter was forced to justify an action without information from the right hemisphere of the brain for why it happened. This means that when the left brain did not know what the right brain was doing, it simply made up a story after the fact to explain the decision. And it was a story that the patient really believed to be true. These instances of confabulation in patients with committer armies offer pretty fascinating insights into how our brains function. And by querying one hemisphere or the other independently,
these patients have provided us lots of information about what types of cognitive processes and information are localized in each of the two hemispheres in most people. But the most striking thing about split brain patients is that it’s really difficult to tell from interacting with them that there is anything amiss, both sides of the brain spend much more time working together and sharing information than operating independently in the healthy brain. They work together and are both necessary for complex thought. The idea that the brain is strictly modular, that different brain regions have different functions is no longer accepted in neuroscience. Instead, we talk about networks or circuits of regions that work together, and many of the circuits crossed the line between the two hemispheres. And even more, let’s even talk about hemispherectomy. These patients who have had half of their brains surgically removed, demonstrate just how malleable lateralization can be removing half a brain. And obviously, this is the fancy word I started with, which is called hemispherectomy. And of course, it sounds horrible, I mean, to have half of the brain removed, but this is a last resort treatment for patients with a damaged hemisphere that is threatening or harming the rest of the brain. Now, of course, hemispherectomy is are rare, they are usually performed on children whose brains have a better chance of recovering function than those of adults. And it’s well established that lateralized functions in the healthy brain such as language can be rewired into the other hemisphere, especially if the patient is very young. This rewiring demonstrates one of the amazing superpowers of the brain, the ability to repurpose cortical real estate for important functions, when the regions that are supposed to carry them out are damaged. This plasticity is seen both before a child develops the activity and even after the function has begun to develop. Remarkably, these patients can go on to lead impressively normal lives. So if you still believe that logical people are left brained and creative people our right brain Well, I’m sorry to tell you that this is just a myth. The truth is the hemispheres are highly interconnected and work together in sync much of the time. Although there is some lateralization of function, many functions are bilateral, and the left brain is necessary for creativity just as much the right brain is. And with that, we come to the end of today’s episode. I hope you enjoyed these two questions. Remember, we talked about two myths today? The first myth was is mental illness, just a chemical imbalance and we debunk that myth. And now the second myth, which is to be honest, the more interesting one are creative people right brain and we both just figure it out that it is definitely not the case. It’s just a myth. And with that, we come to the end of today’s episode. I hope you enjoyed the two myths we talked about today and you learned something you didn’t know about before. And again, let me remind you that you can find the transcript of this episode on my website. The link is in the show notes. And while you’re on the website, just take some time to explore the different content that you can find on the website. And I’m pretty sure that you’ll be interested in some if not all the content on the website and if you want to unlock everything on the website, because some of it is obviously exclusive to my patrons you can become a patron today just use the link you can find them description, go to my Patreon page and become my patron And by doing that you will be definitely supporting me so that I can continue creating the content you love. And of course by doing that as well, you will have great benefits just to name a few you will have access to all the premium episodes that I create for every free episode you listen to on English plus podcast, there is a premium episodes that you can listen to either on Patreon or on the website, of course if you are a patron and finally I would like to thank you very much for listening to another episode from English plus podcast. This is your host Danny, I will see you next time.