Stories are the lifeblood of human culture, and conflict is the beating heart of every story. A compelling narrative can transport readers to far-off worlds, or offer valuable insights into the human experience, but without conflict, a story loses its ability to engage and entertain. This article will delve into the various types of conflicts that can enrich your storytelling, providing writing tips and techniques to help you weave engaging narratives that captivate your audience.

The Importance of Conflict in Storytelling

Conflict is essential to storytelling because it creates tension, propels the plot, and defines the characters’ journeys. A well-crafted conflict compels the reader to invest emotionally in the story, rooting for the protagonist to overcome the obstacles in their path.

Tension is a vital element in any narrative, as it keeps the reader engaged and invested in the story’s outcome. Conflict introduces obstacles and complications, which in turn create tension, as the reader wonders how the characters will resolve the issues they face.

The plot is the series of events that unfold in a story. Conflict drives the plot by providing the protagonist with goals to achieve, adversaries to face, and challenges to overcome. It is the motor that keeps the story moving forward.

Finally, conflict shapes the characters’ journeys by providing opportunities for growth and self-discovery. Characters are forced to confront their fears, weaknesses, and flaws, allowing them to develop and change throughout the story. In essence, conflict is the catalyst for character development.

The Different Types of Conflict

Understanding the different types of conflict is crucial for crafting compelling stories. While the nature of conflict can vary significantly depending on the genre, theme, and characters involved, most conflicts can be categorized into one or more of the following types:

Man vs. Man:

This is one of the most common types of conflict in storytelling. It occurs when the protagonist faces off against an antagonist, often in the form of a rival, enemy, or villain. The conflict can be physical, emotional, or intellectual, but it ultimately pits the two characters against one another in a struggle for dominance or victory.

Examples: Sherlock Holmes vs. Professor Moriarty, Harry Potter vs. Voldemort, Batman vs. The Joker.

Man vs. Nature:

In this type of conflict, the protagonist must struggle against the forces of nature or the environment. This can include battling against natural disasters, hostile landscapes, or predatory animals. The character’s primary goal is to survive and overcome the external forces that threaten their existence.

Examples: Jack London’s “To Build a Fire,” Yann Martel’s “Life of Pi,” Jon Krakauer’s “Into the Wild.”

Man vs. Society:

When the protagonist is in conflict with the societal norms, values, or expectations, it is considered a man vs. society conflict. The character is often fighting against injustice, corruption, or oppressive institutions, and their struggle serves as a commentary on societal issues.

Examples: George Orwell’s “1984,” Ray Bradbury’s “Fahrenheit 451,” Harper Lee’s “To Kill a Mockingbird.

Man vs. Self:

This type of conflict occurs when the protagonist is grappling with their own emotions, beliefs, or desires. The character might struggle with feelings of guilt, fear, or doubt, or wrestle with making a difficult decision. This inner conflict allows the reader to explore the character’s psychological landscape and witness their personal growth.

Examples: Fyodor Dostoevsky’s “Crime and Punishment,” Sylvia Plath’s “The Bell Jar,” J.D. Salinger’s “The Catcher in the Rye.”

Man vs. Fate:

In stories that revolve around a character’s struggle against destiny, fate, or the supernatural, the conflict is characterized as man vs. fate. This type of conflict often explores themes of free will, predestination, and the role of divine intervention in human affairs.

Examples: Sophocles’ “Oedipus Rex,” William Shakespeare’s “Romeo and Juliet,” the mythology of Greek heroes like Achilles and Heracles.

Man vs. Technology:

This conflict arises when a character is pitted against technological advancements, machines, or artificial intelligence. It often addresses themes of humanity’s relationship with technology, the consequences of progress, and the potential dangers of unbridled scientific advancements.

Examples: Mary Shelley’s “Frankenstein,” Michael Crichton’s “Jurassic Park,” Isaac Asimov’s “I, Robot.”

Writing Tips and Techniques for Creating Conflict

  1. Understand your characters: To create compelling conflicts, it is essential to have a deep understanding of your characters. Know their motivations, fears, desires, and vulnerabilities. This knowledge will help you develop realistic and believable conflicts that challenge your characters and push them to grow.
  2. Establish clear stakes: In order for a conflict to be engaging, the reader must understand what is at stake for the characters. Clearly define the goals and consequences of failure, so the reader can become emotionally invested in the outcome of the conflict.
  3. Keep the conflict relevant: Ensure that the conflict is integral to the story and the character’s development. It should not feel like a random event or subplot; instead, it should be deeply connected to the overall narrative and the protagonist’s journey.
  4. Vary the types of conflict: Incorporate a mix of internal and external conflicts in your story. This adds depth and variety to your narrative, keeping the reader engaged and invested in the characters’ struggles.
  5. Escalate the conflict: As the story progresses, raise the stakes and increase the tension by making the conflicts more challenging for your characters. This will create a sense of momentum and urgency, propelling the story towards its climax.
  6. Resolve conflicts in a satisfying manner: The resolution of a conflict should feel earned and believable. Avoid relying on convenient coincidences or deus ex machina to resolve conflicts, as this can undermine the credibility of your story and leave the reader feeling cheated.

To further illustrate the different types of conflicts and how they can be employed in storytelling, let’s examine some examples from popular literature:

  1. Man vs. Man: In J.R.R. Tolkien’s “The Lord of the Rings,” the central conflict revolves around the protagonist, Frodo Baggins, and his struggle against the dark lord Sauron. This epic battle between good and evil drives the plot and defines the characters’ journeys.
  2. Man vs. Nature: In Ernest Hemingway’s “The Old Man and the Sea,” the protagonist, Santiago, battles against a giant marlin in the open ocean. The struggle against the forces of nature tests Santiago’s endurance, resilience, and determination.
  3. Man vs. Society: In Margaret Atwood’s “The Handmaid’s Tale,” the protagonist, Offred, is oppressed by a totalitarian regime that subjugates women. Her struggle against the repressive society in which she lives highlights issues of gender, power, and resistance.
  4. Man vs. Self: In Charlotte Brontë’s “Jane Eyre,” the titular character must confront her own feelings of worthlessness and self-doubt as she navigates her relationships and seeks independence. Jane’s internal conflict is central to her personal growth and self-discovery throughout the novel.
  1. Man vs. Fate: In Gabriel García Márquez’s “One Hundred Years of Solitude,” the Buendía family is plagued by a seemingly inescapable cycle of tragedy and misfortune. Their struggle against fate and the weight of their own history drives the narrative and shapes their individual destinies.
  2. Man vs. Technology: In Aldous Huxley’s “Brave New World,” the protagonist, John the Savage, finds himself in a society that has been shaped and controlled by advanced technology. His conflict with the artificial and dehumanizing aspects of this world raises questions about the consequences of technological progress and the loss of individuality.

Common Mistakes Writers Make When They Write Conflict in Their Stories

Creating one-dimensional characters:

One common mistake writers make when crafting conflicts is failing to fully develop their characters. One-dimensional characters lack depth and complexity, which can make conflicts feel shallow or contrived. It’s essential to create well-rounded characters with distinct personalities, motivations, and backgrounds, as this will make their conflicts more engaging and believable.

Example: In a poorly executed man vs. man conflict, the antagonist may be portrayed as a stereotypical “evil” character with no redeeming qualities or understandable motivations. This lack of depth makes it difficult for readers to invest in the conflict, as the antagonist feels more like a plot device than a genuine character. To avoid this pitfall, writers should strive to create nuanced, multi-faceted antagonists with believable motivations and relatable qualities.

Overusing conflict:

While conflict is a crucial component of storytelling, it’s possible to have too much of a good thing. Overloading a story with constant conflict can exhaust readers and make the narrative feel chaotic or disjointed. Writers should carefully balance conflict with quieter moments of character development, introspection, and world-building.

Example: In a story where the protagonist faces a new life-threatening challenge in every chapter, readers may become desensitized to the conflict and lose interest in the story. Instead, writers should intersperse high-stakes conflicts with scenes that explore the characters’ emotions, relationships, and inner struggles, which can provide much-needed breathing room and allow readers to connect more deeply with the story.

Resolving conflicts too easily:

Another common mistake is resolving conflicts too quickly or conveniently, which can undermine the tension and drama of a story. If conflicts are consistently resolved without any real struggle or sacrifice, readers may become disengaged, as the stakes feel low and the outcomes predictable.

Example: In a man vs. nature conflict, a protagonist might become lost in a dangerous wilderness. If the character is miraculously rescued by a passing helicopter without facing any genuine hardships, the conflict loses its impact. To maintain tension and reader interest, writers should ensure that conflicts are resolved in a believable and satisfying manner, with characters facing real consequences and growth as a result of their struggles.

Neglecting internal conflict:

Focusing solely on external conflicts, such as man vs. man or man vs. nature, can lead to a story that feels shallow or lacking in emotional depth. Internal conflicts, such as man vs. self, allow readers to explore a character’s emotional landscape, which can add richness and complexity to a narrative.

Example: In a story about a protagonist battling an evil corporation, the writer may focus exclusively on the external struggle against the antagonistic organization. By neglecting the protagonist’s internal conflicts, such as self-doubt or ethical dilemmas, the story misses an opportunity to delve deeper into the character’s psyche and create a more emotionally resonant narrative.

Misaligned character motivations:

A common mistake when creating conflict is having character motivations that do not align with their actions or the story’s overall goals. This can result in conflicts that feel forced or inauthentic, as characters behave in ways that do not make sense given their established motivations.

Example: If a character is motivated by a desire for personal wealth, it would feel contrived for them to suddenly risk their life to save a stranger without any clear justification. Writers should ensure that character motivations are consistent and logical throughout the story, allowing conflicts to arise organically from these motivations and driving the narrative forward in a believable way.

Failing to foreshadow conflicts:

An important aspect of crafting engaging conflicts is providing adequate foreshadowing. When conflicts arise suddenly, without any buildup or hint of their impending arrival, they can feel jarring or implausible. Foreshadowing helps create a sense of anticipation, giving readers subtle clues about the challenges that lie ahead for the characters.

Example: In a story where the protagonist discovers a long-lost sibling, the revelation might feel contrived if there were no previous hints or suggestions about the existence of the sibling. By including subtle foreshadowing, such as unexplained family secrets or mysterious past events, writers can make the eventual conflict feel more organic and believable.

Ignoring the consequences of conflict:

Conflict often leads to significant changes in the lives of characters, whether in the form of personal growth, damaged relationships, or altered circumstances. Failing to address the consequences of conflict can make a story feel incomplete or unrealistic.

Example: If a protagonist overcomes a significant internal conflict, such as conquering a deep-seated fear, it’s important to show how this growth impacts their life moving forward. Glossing over the consequences of conflict can make the story feel less meaningful and deny readers the satisfaction of witnessing the characters’ development.

Relying on clichéd conflicts:

When crafting conflicts, writers should be mindful of relying too heavily on clichés or overused tropes. While some familiar conflict scenarios can be effective, relying on clichés can make a story feel predictable and unoriginal.

Example: A “love triangle” is a common cliché in romantic fiction. If a writer includes this conflict without adding any unique twists or exploring the characters’ motivations and emotions in depth, the story may feel stale and unengaging. To avoid clichéd conflicts, writers should strive to create fresh, original scenarios or put new spins on familiar tropes.

Inconsistent pacing:

Pacing is a crucial aspect of storytelling and can be significantly impacted by the presentation of conflict. If conflicts are introduced and resolved too quickly or too slowly, the pacing of the story can feel uneven, making it difficult for readers to stay engaged.

Example: In a thriller, if the protagonist encounters an antagonist in the beginning but doesn’t face any significant challenges for several chapters, the story may lose momentum and reader interest. Conversely, if conflicts are introduced and resolved in rapid succession, the story may feel rushed and chaotic. Striking the right balance between conflict and resolution is essential for maintaining a consistent pace throughout a narrative.

In conclusion, crafting engaging and believable conflicts is essential for creating compelling stories. By avoiding common mistakes, such as creating one-dimensional characters, overusing conflict, resolving conflicts too easily, neglecting internal conflict, misaligning character motivations, failing to foreshadow, ignoring the consequences of conflict, relying on clichés, and maintaining inconsistent pacing, writers can enhance their storytelling and captivate readers with powerful narratives that resonate on both an emotional and intellectual level.

Common Questions Aspiring Writers May Have about Conflict

How can I create conflict that feels unique and original?

To create unique and original conflicts, challenge yourself to think outside the box and explore unconventional ideas. Consider combining different types of conflicts, playing with genre tropes, or subverting reader expectations. Analyze your favorite stories to understand the elements that make their conflicts stand out, and draw inspiration from real-life events, personal experiences, or historical incidents. Always strive to delve deeper into your characters’ motivations and emotions, as this can lead to the discovery of fresh, compelling conflicts that resonate with readers.

How can I balance multiple conflicts in my story without overwhelming the reader?

Balancing multiple conflicts requires careful planning and organization. Start by outlining your story’s structure and identifying the primary and secondary conflicts. Ensure that each conflict serves a purpose and contributes to the overall narrative. Introduce and resolve conflicts in a logical sequence, weaving them together in a way that feels natural and cohesive. Be mindful of pacing and avoid introducing too many conflicts at once, which can overwhelm the reader. Instead, stagger the introduction and resolution of conflicts, allowing space for character development and quieter moments in between.

How can I use subplots to enhance the main conflict in my story?

Subplots can be an effective way to enhance the main conflict in your story by providing additional layers of tension, revealing character motivations, or exploring different aspects of the central theme. When crafting subplots, ensure that they are connected to the main conflict in some way, either directly or thematically. Subplots should complement and enrich the primary storyline, rather than detract from it or feel like unnecessary distractions. Integrate subplots smoothly into your narrative, weaving them into the overall structure of the story so that they feel like an integral part of the larger narrative tapestry.

How can I create conflict that is appropriate for my target audience?

To create conflict that is appropriate for your target audience, consider the genre, age group, and interests of your intended readers. Research the expectations and preferences of your target audience, and familiarize yourself with popular books or stories within your chosen genre. Tailor your conflicts to suit the tastes and sensibilities of your readers while remaining true to your own creative vision. For younger readers, be mindful of the complexity and intensity of the conflicts, ensuring that they are suitable for the age group. For adult readers, consider exploring more sophisticated themes, moral dilemmas, or psychological conflicts that will challenge and engage their intellect and emotions.

How can I ensure that my characters’ reactions to conflict feel authentic and believable?

To ensure that your characters’ reactions to conflict feel authentic and believable, take the time to understand their personalities, motivations, backgrounds, and emotional states. Consider how their past experiences and personal beliefs might influence their reactions to various conflicts. Keep in mind that characters, like real people, may not always react in a predictable or rational manner, and may be influenced by a range of internal and external factors. Be consistent with your character’s established traits, but also allow for growth and change as they navigate the challenges they face. Finally, don’t be afraid to challenge your characters by putting them in difficult situations that force them to confront their fears, weaknesses, or flaws, as this can lead to engaging and authentic character development.

How can I effectively use dialogue to convey conflict?

Dialogue is an excellent tool for conveying conflict, as it allows characters to express their thoughts, emotions, and motivations directly. To use dialogue effectively in conflict situations, consider the following tips:

  • Keep dialogue natural and consistent with each character’s unique voice and personality.
  • Use subtext and implied meaning to create tension, as characters may not always say exactly what they think or feel.
  • Vary the rhythm, tone, and pacing of dialogue to reflect the emotional state of the characters and the intensity of the conflict.
  • Include nonverbal cues, such as body language, facial expressions, and pauses, to convey emotion and add depth to the dialogue.
  • Avoid excessive exposition or “info-dumping” in dialogue, as this can feel unnatural and detract from the conflict.

How can I create conflicts that challenge my protagonist without making them seem passive or helpless?

To create conflicts that challenge your protagonist without making them seem passive or helpless, ensure that they have agency and actively participate in the resolution of the conflicts they face. Consider the following strategies:

  • Give your protagonist clear goals and motivations that drive their actions and decisions.
  • Allow your protagonist to make choices, even if they are not always the right ones, as this demonstrates their agency and involvement in the story.
  • Show your protagonist learning from their mistakes and adapting their approach as they encounter new challenges.
  • Balance the external obstacles your protagonist faces with internal struggles, allowing them to grow and develop as a character.
  • Provide opportunities for your protagonist to demonstrate their resourcefulness, resilience, and determination in the face of adversity.

How can I ensure that the resolution of a conflict is satisfying and impactful?

To ensure that the resolution of a conflict is satisfying and impactful, consider the following tips:

  • Tie the resolution to the protagonist’s character arc, allowing them to grow, change, or learn something valuable as a result of the conflict.
  • Avoid resolving conflicts through convenient coincidences or deus ex machina, as this can undermine the credibility of your story and leave the reader feeling cheated.
  • Ensure that the resolution is earned through the protagonist’s actions, sacrifices, or personal growth, making the outcome feel more satisfying and meaningful.
  • Address the consequences of the conflict, exploring how the resolution impacts the characters, their relationships, and their world.
  • Create a sense of closure by tying up loose ends and addressing any lingering questions or concerns, while also leaving room for future developments if desired.

How can I use setting and atmosphere to enhance the conflict in my story?

Setting and atmosphere can play a significant role in enhancing conflict by creating mood, tension, and stakes. To use setting and atmosphere effectively, consider the following tips:

  • Choose a setting that complements or amplifies the conflict, whether it’s an inhospitable environment that challenges the protagonist or a familiar location that brings unresolved issues to the surface.
  • Use descriptive language to create a vivid and immersive atmosphere that evokes the emotions and sensations associated with the conflict.
  • Show how the setting influences the characters’ actions, decisions, and emotional states, creating additional obstacles or opportunities for growth.
  • Use symbolism or metaphor to deepen the thematic resonance of the conflict, with the setting reflecting or mirroring the characters’ internal struggles.
  • Consider how the setting changes or evolves over the course of the story, reflecting the progression of the conflict and its impact on the characters.

How can I use pacing and narrative structure to enhance the conflict in my story?

Pacing and narrative structure are crucial elements of storytelling that can greatly impact the effectiveness of conflict. To use pacing and narrative structure to enhance conflict, consider the following strategies:

  • Experiment with different narrative structures, such as linear, non-linear, or parallel narratives, to find the most effective way to present your story’s conflicts.
  • Vary the pacing of your story, balancing high-intensity conflict scenes with quieter moments of introspection, character development, and world-building.
  • Use cliffhangers or plot twists to maintain tension and suspense, keeping readers engaged and invested in the outcome of the conflict.
  • Consider using multiple points of view to provide different perspectives on the conflict, adding depth and complexity to the narrative.
  • Plan your story’s overall structure, ensuring that conflicts are introduced and resolved in a logical and satisfying manner, with each conflict building on the previous ones and driving the narrative towards its climax.

By considering these common questions and implementing the strategies discussed, writers can further refine their understanding of conflict in storytelling and create more engaging, impactful narratives that resonate with readers on a deep emotional level.


Understanding the different types of conflicts and how they can be employed in storytelling is an essential aspect of crafting engaging narratives. By incorporating a mix of internal and external conflicts, establishing clear stakes, and ensuring the conflicts are relevant to the overall story, writers can create stories that captivate readers and stand the test of time. By studying and implementing the tips and techniques discussed in this article, you can transform your stories into powerful and memorable works of art.


  1. Conflict in Storytelling: The struggle or opposition that characters face, driving the plot and character development in a narrative.
  2. External Conflict: Conflict that arises from outside forces, such as antagonists, challenging situations, or a hostile environment.
  3. Internal Conflict: Conflict that occurs within a character, often involving emotions, desires, or personal growth.
  4. Man vs. Nature: A type of external conflict where characters struggle against natural forces, such as storms, animals, or survival scenarios.
  5. Man vs. Society: A type of external conflict where characters face opposition from societal norms, institutions, or cultural expectations.
  6. Foreshadowing: The use of subtle hints or clues to suggest future events or conflicts in a story.
  7. Character Agency: A character’s ability to make choices and influence the outcome of events in a narrative.
  8. Pacing: The speed and rhythm at which a story unfolds, influenced by the introduction and resolution of conflicts.
  9. Subplot: A secondary story or narrative thread that runs alongside the main plot, often used to enhance the main conflict or explore different aspects of a theme.
  10. Deus Ex Machina: An unexpected or implausible resolution to a conflict, often relying on coincidence or external intervention.
  11. Character Arc: The development and transformation of a character over the course of a story, often influenced by the conflicts they face.
  12. Clichéd Conflicts: Overused or predictable conflict scenarios that can make a story feel unoriginal and stale.
  13. Love Triangle: A common romantic conflict where two characters vie for the affection of a third character.
  14. Narrative Structure: The organization and arrangement of events in a story, used to present and resolve conflicts effectively.
  15. Subtext: The underlying or implied meaning behind dialogue or actions, often used to convey tension or hidden emotions in conflict situations.
  16. Setting: The time and place in which a story takes place, often used to enhance or amplify conflict.
  17. Atmosphere: The mood or tone created by a story’s setting and descriptive language, used to evoke emotions and enhance conflict.
  18. Symbolism: The use of objects, actions, or settings to represent abstract ideas or concepts, often used to deepen the thematic resonance of a conflict.
  19. Point of View: The perspective from which a story is told, which can provide different insights into a conflict.
  20. Cliffhanger: A suspenseful or unresolved ending to a chapter or scene, used to maintain tension and reader interest in the outcome of a conflict.
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