Explore the importance of critical thinking in problem-solving, decision-making, and strategic planning. Learn how analytical and creative thinking contribute to effective solutions and long-term success in personal and professional contexts. Discover key takeaways, FAQs, and myth-busting insights about critical thinking.

Episode Audio

Episode Transcript


Hello and welcome to another episode from your favorite podcast, English Plus, where we delve into interesting topics and not only improve our English, but also take our knowledge about these topics to the next level. Today, we’re going to talk about critical thinking — the gateway to effective problem-solving and decision-making. But because you’re listening to English Plus, we’re not going only to talk about this, we’re also going to discuss keywords in our Word Power segment, we’re going to talk about real life applications of critical thinking, then in our Frequently Asked Questions and Myth Buster segments, we’re going to answer commonly asked questions and debunk some myths about critical thinking, so there’s a lot to cover in today’s most exciting topic, critical thinking. But today, I’m not alone, I have my good friend Phoenix with me and we’re going to discuss critical thinking together. Welcome to the show, Phoenix.


Hey there, and thanks for having me on English Plus! Critical thinking, now that’s a topic I’m always excited to dive into. It’s like a Swiss Army knife for your brain, right? Useful in pretty much every situation, whether you’re trying to figure out the best smartphone to buy or navigating the complex world of social interactions. So, where do we kick off this brainy adventure?


I’m glad you’re excited about the topic as much as I am, but let me start with something I have noticed for years and years when I was a teacher about critical thinking. For the most part, it felt like a buzzword, or just our fellow teachers and supervisors trying to use big words, but when it came to practical application, there wasn’t much of a difference. Do you think critical thinking is a buzzword as some people may think, and to be honest, why should we care at all? And more importantly, why should our listeners care? I mean if you don’t give me a good answer here, most of our listeners will leave us now and we may as well close shop quickly today.


You’ve hit the nail on the head there. Critical thinking can sound like one of those fancy terms educators or corporate folks toss around to sound smart, but when you strip away the buzz, it’s actually a super practical skill. Think of it like this: It’s not just about thinking, but about thinking about your thinking. Meta, right?

Why should we care, and why should our listeners stick around? Well, imagine you’re at a store, looking at two gadgets that seem identical, but one’s pricier. Critical thinking helps you break down the why – maybe it’s a brand thing, maybe one has a feature you’ll never use. Or consider social media, where we’re bombarded with info. Critical thinking is your filter there, helping you sort the legit from the, well, not-so-legit.

In a nutshell, critical thinking is about making smarter choices, not just in big life decisions but in everyday situations. It’s a skill that, once you get the hang of it, you’ll wonder how you ever managed without it. And that, my friends, is why you should stick with us for the rest of the episode – because we’re all about making life’s puzzles a bit easier to solve.


Very well, you got me interested here. Well done! Well, let’s start with the obvious question. What is critical thinking and how is it different from just thinking?


Alright, let’s break it down. Regular thinking is like walking: you do it all the time, often without much effort. It’s automatic. You think about what to eat, what to wear, what to watch on TV. Now, critical thinking, on the other hand, is like hiking through unfamiliar territory with a map and compass. It requires effort, attention, and tools.

Critical thinking involves actively analyzing, assessing, and reconstructing your thought process. It’s not just taking information at face value but asking questions like, “Why do I think this? What evidence supports it? Are there other perspectives I haven’t considered?” It’s about being curious, skeptical, and reflective, rather than just accepting things because that’s how they’ve always been.

In essence, while regular thinking might help you decide what to have for lunch, critical thinking helps you navigate more complex problems — like figuring out why a project at work isn’t going as planned, or how to make an important financial decision. It’s thinking with intention and purpose, and that’s what sets it apart.


So, is it safe to say that it is a skill and as we know and always preach here at English Plus, if it is a skill, that means anybody can work on it, and it’s not saved only for the elite and those with high intelligence. But before we break down this skill to its manageable components, let’s start with the end in mind. Well, Phoenix besides what you said as the benefits of critical thinking, what can we achieve with critical thinking? I believe it’s a fair question to ask at the beginning to know if the journey is worth it or not.


Absolutely, it’s a fair question. And you’re right, critical thinking is a skill, not a birthright reserved for the elite. Anyone can sharpen it with practice. Now, as for what we can achieve with it, let’s paint a picture.

  1. Better Problem Solving: You’ll be like a detective, piecing together clues and considering multiple angles to solve problems more effectively. This could be in your personal life, like planning a budget, or at work, like improving a team’s performance.
  2. Improved Decision Making: Imagine facing tough choices with more clarity. Critical thinking helps you weigh pros and cons, understand the consequences of your actions, and make decisions that are not just reactions to the moment but are well thought out.
  3. Enhanced Communication: Critical thinking sharpens your ability to understand and articulate your thoughts clearly. This makes discussions, debates, and negotiations more fruitful. You’re not just talking; you’re communicating with purpose.
  4. Increased Creativity: It’s not all about logic and analysis. Critical thinking can actually boost creativity. By questioning assumptions and exploring different viewpoints, you can come up with more innovative solutions and ideas.
  5. Personal Growth: On a personal level, it encourages self-reflection and a deeper understanding of your values, beliefs, and biases. This can lead to personal growth and a more fulfilling life.

So, is the journey worth it? I’d say, without a doubt. The benefits of critical thinking spill over into every aspect of life, making it not just a skill for the workplace or academics, but for daily living. It’s like upgrading your brain’s operating system to handle life’s challenges more effectively.


Well, I’ll have to say that this is indeed quite a mouth watering menu you’ve got going in there, and my guess is that almost everyone would want a piece of it. But let’s start by asking ourselves. Do we have any of that going in our lives? I mean how can I tell if I’m thinking critically about the things happening around me or if I’m just thinking? And I believe that most of us are somewhere in the middle. We think critically about certain aspects of our lives and just take it easy and let things just happen in other aspects of our lives, and this is healthy by the way. You don’t need to sweat every single decision you have to make. Sometimes critical thinking is not your first priority. But let me circle back to my original question. How do you think we can tell if we are good, bad, or somewhere in between when it comes to critical thinking? And do you think I’m right by saying that we don’t need critical thinking all the time?


You’ve brought up some excellent points. It’s true, we’re often somewhere in the middle of the critical thinking spectrum. We’re like chefs in a kitchen – sometimes we’re meticulously crafting a gourmet meal, and other times, we’re just microwaving a quick snack. Not every decision demands a full-blown analysis.

So, how do you know if you’re using critical thinking? Well, it’s a bit like being a detective in your own mind. Here are some signs:

  1. Questioning Habits: If you often find yourself asking “Why?” or “How do I know this?” in situations, that’s a good sign. It means you’re not taking things at face value.
  2. Considering Multiple Perspectives: Critical thinkers try to see things from different angles. If you’re someone who weighs different viewpoints before forming an opinion, you’re on the right track.
  3. Awareness of Biases: We all have biases, but being aware of them and trying to mitigate their influence is a key part of critical thinking.
  4. Seeking Evidence: Rather than just going with gut feelings or assumptions, if you find yourself looking for facts and data, that’s a critical thinking approach.
  5. Willingness to Change your Mind: This is a big one. If you can change your opinion based on new evidence, that’s a hallmark of a critical thinker.

And you’re absolutely right – we don’t need to deploy critical thinking at every moment. It’s okay to choose your battles. Critical thinking is important, but so is relaxing, enjoying the moment, and sometimes just going with the flow. It’s all about balance. Overthinking every little decision can be exhausting and not necessarily more effective. Like everything in life, it’s about picking the right tool for the job.


So, the big five signs, questioning habits, considering multiple perspectives, awareness of biases, seeking evidence and willingness to change your mind. If you have all or at least some of these, you’re on the right track, and you can always work on the other aspects you may think you’re not that good at, but more about that later. Now before we move on and talk about some more practical approaches to improve our critical thinking skills, I would like to touch upon the issue of biases. I mean, we’re definitely going to dedicate a full episode to talk about biases and there are just too many types of biases, but let’s just quickly talk about the most common ones that almost all of us have, at least sometimes.


Absolutely, diving into biases is crucial. They’re like the invisible strings that can pull our thoughts and decisions in directions we might not even realize. Here are some of the most common biases:

  1. Confirmation Bias: This is a big one. It’s our tendency to search for, interpret, and remember information in a way that confirms our preexisting beliefs or hypotheses. It’s like having blinders on that only let in the information that agrees with what we already think.
  2. Anchoring Bias: This happens when we rely too heavily on the first piece of information we receive (the “anchor”) when making decisions. For instance, if the first car you see at a dealership is $30,000, you might consider the next one priced at $25,000 a bargain, even if it’s not the best deal out there.
  3. Overconfidence Bias: This is when we overestimate our own abilities or knowledge. It’s like thinking you’re a basketball pro after scoring a few good shots, but in reality, you might not be ready for the NBA just yet.
  4. Availability Heuristic: This bias occurs when we overestimate the importance of information that is readily available to us. For example, if you just watched a documentary on plane crashes, you might overestimate the danger of flying.
  5. Groupthink: This isn’t just an individual bias; it happens in groups. It’s when the desire for harmony or conformity in a group results in irrational or dysfunctional decision-making.

Recognizing these biases in ourselves is a key step in honing our critical thinking skills. It’s like being aware of the mental potholes so we can steer clear of them. And you’re right, we could do a whole episode on each of these – there’s so much to unpack!


This is absolutely a very important topic that we will definitely talk about in an upcoming episode, but now let’s get back to our main topic for today, and that is critical thinking. How can we work on our critical thinking skills. Let’s start by talking about it as a personal skill that we can work on. Are there certain exercises, or methods we can try to improve our critical thinking skills?


Great question! Improving critical thinking skills is a bit like working out at the gym. You have to exercise those mental muscles regularly. Here are some methods and exercises that can help:

  1. Ask Basic Questions: Start with the fundamentals. When faced with a problem, ask yourself basic questions like “What do I already know?” “What am I trying to prove or find out?” “What are my assumptions?” This lays a solid foundation for deeper analysis.
  2. Play Devil’s Advocate: Challenge your own beliefs by arguing the opposite side. This can be done through writing or in discussions. It forces you to see different perspectives and question your assumptions.
  3. The Five Whys Technique: When faced with a problem, ask “Why?” five times to drill down to the root cause. This technique, originating from Toyota’s production system, is a simple yet powerful tool for uncovering the heart of a problem.
  4. Mind Mapping: Visualize problems and their potential solutions. Draw out the problem and connect related thoughts, ideas, and answers around it. This can help in seeing the problem from different angles and understanding complex relationships.
  5. Case Studies and Role-Playing: Engaging with real-world scenarios can enhance critical thinking. Analyzing case studies or role-playing different scenarios helps in applying theoretical knowledge to practical situations.
  6. Critical Reading and Writing: Engage with texts critically. When reading, question the author’s intent, methods, and conclusions. When writing, practice presenting arguments logically and coherently.
  7. Reflect Regularly: Regular reflection on your decision-making process and outcomes helps in understanding your thinking patterns and identifying areas for improvement.

Remember, improving critical thinking is a gradual process. It’s like learning a new language; you get better with practice. So, don’t be discouraged if it feels challenging at first. The more you practice, the more naturally it will come to you.


Well, I’m really interested in the five whys technique? Do you have an example in mind? How does that work?


Absolutely, the Five Whys technique is a great tool for digging deeper into problems. Let’s walk through an example to see how it works.

Imagine you’re a manager, and your team has missed a project deadline. Here’s how you might apply the Five Whys:

  1. First Why: Why did my team miss the deadline?
    • Answer: Because we were two weeks late in delivering the final product.
  2. Second Why: Why were we two weeks late?
    • Answer: Because several key team members were out sick in the final stages.
  3. Third Why: Why were key team members out sick at the same time?
    • Answer: Because there was a flu outbreak in the office.
  4. Fourth Why: Why was there a flu outbreak in the office?
    • Answer: Because we didn’t have a policy for sick employees to stay home.
  5. Fifth Why: Why didn’t we have a policy for sick employees to stay home?
    • Answer: Because we hadn’t considered the impact of illness on project timelines and team health.

By the fifth why, you’ve uncovered a root cause: the lack of a policy for sick employees, which led to a flu outbreak and ultimately affected your project timeline. Instead of just blaming the team for missing the deadline, you now have a deeper understanding of the issue and can work on a more effective solution, like implementing a new health policy.

This technique is powerful because it encourages you to look beyond the obvious surface-level reasons and uncover underlying issues. It’s all about connecting the dots to get a clearer picture of the problem.


I love that. It’s such an effective exercise to practice and of course, it can work on many different situations both at home and at work. I mean you can use that to dig deeper into your relationships with your friends and family and when conflict arises, this can definitely help you get to the root cause of the problem. Don’t you think so?


Absolutely, you’ve got it spot on. The Five Whys isn’t just a business tool; it’s a fantastic method for personal use, especially in relationships. When conflicts arise, it’s often the surface issues that get all the attention. But like an iceberg, the bulk of the problem is hidden beneath the surface.

Let’s say you’re having a recurring argument with a family member about them being late to events. Applying the Five Whys could look something like this:

  1. First Why: Why am I upset about my family member being late?
    • Answer: Because it makes me feel like they don’t value my time.
  2. Second Why: Why do I feel they don’t value my time when they’re late?
    • Answer: Because being on time is a way of showing respect in my view.
  3. Third Why: Why do I equate punctuality with respect?
    • Answer: Because that’s what was emphasized in my upbringing.
  4. Fourth Why: Why was punctuality so emphasized in my upbringing?
    • Answer: Because my parents associated punctuality with responsibility and care.
  5. Fifth Why: Why is it important for me that this family member shows responsibility and care in this specific way?
    • Answer: Because I worry that their habitual lateness reflects a lack of these qualities in other areas of our relationship.

This process helps you understand that the conflict isn’t just about time; it’s about underlying values and perceptions. It can lead to more empathetic and productive conversations, where you express your feelings and understandings, and also listen to their perspective. This method can really illuminate the hidden layers of seemingly simple issues, fostering better understanding and stronger relationships.


Well, that’s an interesting example indeed. Alright, let’s move on to how we can use critical thinking in schools. Well, let’s be honest, are we there yet when it comes to embedding critical thinking properly in our curriculums? I personally think that there’s still a lot to be done in this area.


You’re right on the money there. When it comes to embedding critical thinking in school curriculums, we’ve made some strides, but there’s definitely a long road ahead. It’s one thing to talk about critical thinking as a goal, but quite another to weave it effectively into the fabric of education.

Here’s the crux of the issue: Traditional education systems often emphasize rote learning and memorization. Students are rewarded for recalling facts and figures, but less so for questioning, analyzing, or synthesizing information. This approach doesn’t leave much room for critical thinking, which is more about the process of thinking than the final answer.

However, there are ways schools can foster critical thinking:

  1. Inquiry-Based Learning: Encouraging students to ask questions and explore topics in depth, rather than just learning from textbooks.
  2. Problem-Based Learning: Presenting students with real-world problems to solve, which requires them to research, collaborate, and apply knowledge in practical ways.
  3. Open-Ended Questions: Moving away from just multiple-choice or right/wrong questions and towards questions that require explanation, justification, and critical analysis.
  4. Encouraging Debate and Discussion: Creating a classroom environment where different viewpoints are welcomed and discussed can help students learn to think critically about various issues.
  5. Teaching Critical Thinking Skills Explicitly: Instead of assuming students will ‘pick up’ these skills, teaching them directly – like how to evaluate sources of information, how to construct and deconstruct arguments, etc.
  6. Interdisciplinary Learning: Connecting different subjects and showing how concepts interrelate encourages deeper understanding and critical thinking.

In the grand scheme of things, we’re still in the early stages of integrating critical thinking into education systems globally. It’s a shift that requires not just curriculum changes, but also a change in teaching philosophy and methods. It’s an exciting and necessary evolution, and one that will better prepare students for the complexities of the real world.


But wouldn’t that pose a problem for assessment. I mean that’s a nightmare for teachers to handle compared to the super simple multiple-choice questions. But is that reason enough not to get ourselves involved in actively integrating critical thinking in our curriculums? Absolutely not. It’s definitely worth it, and now especially with the integration of AI into almost every aspect of our lives and only more will come to this field, critical thinking skills have become more important than ever before.


You’ve hit a key point: assessment. It’s true, assessing critical thinking skills can be more challenging than grading multiple-choice tests. There’s a level of subjectivity and complexity in evaluating how a student thinks, analyzes, and presents arguments compared to simply marking right or wrong answers.

However, as you rightly said, this challenge isn’t a good enough reason to shy away from integrating critical thinking into curriculums. In fact, it’s an essential shift. With the rise of AI and technology, routine tasks are increasingly automated, making critical thinking and problem-solving skills more valuable than ever. The future workforce needs people who can think creatively, adapt to new situations, and navigate complex information landscapes.

To tackle the assessment challenge, educators can use various methods:

  1. Rubrics: Creating clear criteria for what constitutes good critical thinking can help in objectively assessing students’ work.
  2. Portfolios: Allowing students to build a portfolio of their work over time can provide a broader picture of their critical thinking development.
  3. Reflective Journals: Encouraging students to keep journals where they reflect on their learning process can offer insights into their thinking.
  4. Peer Review: Involving students in evaluating each other’s work can not only help with assessment but also foster further critical thinking.
  5. Project-Based Assessment: Evaluating students through projects that require critical thinking, rather than traditional exams, can be more indicative of their actual skills.

Yes, it’s a challenge, but one that’s absolutely worth taking on. The goal is to prepare students not just to pass exams, but to thrive in a rapidly changing world where critical thinking is a key currency. It’s an investment in the future, both for individuals and for society as a whole.


So, it’s a mild warning for those of you out there who are relaxing about the skills you have accumulated over the years. Of course, I have nothing but respect for all the effort you put in order to get here, but we cannot afford to be complacent. If your skills mainly consist of mastering routine and repetitive tasks, you are in real danger of being replaced or becoming obsolete soon. And even if some of us are safe, our children are definitely not safe. They cannot settle down with some repetitive skills they learned. It’s simply not enough, we have to rely on the main skills that differentiate us as humans from animals and from artificial intelligence, which is a completely different kind of animal. We can still hold that edge we have, but not by sitting around waiting for things to happen. We need to seek critical thinking actively to improve our problem-solving skills and decision-making capabilities.


Absolutely, you’ve captured the essence of the situation perfectly. In a world where AI and automation are becoming increasingly prevalent, our human edge lies in skills that machines can’t replicate (at least not yet). Critical thinking, creativity, empathy, and complex problem-solving are what set us apart.

It’s a bit like the shift from manual labor to skilled labor during the Industrial Revolution. Just as physical strength was eclipsed by the need for technical skills, now routine and repetitive skills are being overshadowed by the need for advanced cognitive abilities.

This is not about diminishing the value of past efforts or skills acquired; it’s about recognizing the shift in the landscape and adapting accordingly. It’s a call to action, not just for personal growth but for ensuring relevance in a rapidly evolving job market.

For our children, fostering these skills is even more critical. We need to equip them with the tools not just to survive but to thrive in a future where AI and technology are integral. Schools, parents, and communities all play a role in this. Encouraging curiosity, critical thinking, and creative problem-solving from a young age sets a foundation that no AI can shake.

And for adults, it’s never too late to start. Whether it’s through formal education, self-study, or practical application in our jobs and daily lives, actively seeking to enhance our critical thinking skills is a step towards securing our place in a future where AI is a partner, not a replacement. It’s about embracing change and growing with it, rather than watching from the sidelines.


Alright then. Now before we move on to our Word Power segment, we did talk about critical thinking on a personal level and at school, but what about companies. How can companies work on that? Besides the almost useless seminars that most employees enjoy attending for the free food and free time.


Ah, the classic company seminars – often more about the snacks than the skills! But seriously, for companies to genuinely foster critical thinking among their employees, it requires more than just a one-off seminar. It’s about creating a culture where critical thinking is valued, encouraged, and practiced regularly. Here’s how companies can do that:

  1. Problem-Solving as a Team Activity: Encourage teams to work together on solving real problems the company faces. This collaborative approach not only promotes critical thinking but also harnesses diverse perspectives.
  2. Encourage Questioning and Curiosity: Create an environment where employees feel comfortable asking questions and challenging the status quo. This can be through regular brainstorming sessions, suggestion boxes, or open forums.
  3. Offer Training Workshops: Yes, workshops can be effective if done right. Instead of generic, one-size-fits-all seminars, focus on interactive, practical workshops where employees can work on real-life scenarios and apply critical thinking skills.
  4. Lead by Example: Leadership plays a key role. If company leaders demonstrate critical thinking in their decision-making, it sets a tone for the rest of the organization.
  5. Reward Critical Thinking: Acknowledge and reward employees who demonstrate exceptional problem-solving and critical thinking. This not only motivates the individual but also sets a precedent for others.
  6. Encourage Cross-Departmental Interaction: Different departments can offer different viewpoints. Encouraging cross-departmental projects or meetings can stimulate new ideas and ways of thinking.
  7. Continuous Learning Opportunities: Provide resources for continuous learning, like access to courses, books, and webinars on critical thinking and related skills.

In a nutshell, it’s about weaving critical thinking into the company’s DNA. It’s not a one-off event but a continuous process of growth and learning. Companies that do this well don’t just benefit from having employees who think critically; they build teams that are agile, innovative, and ready to tackle the challenges of a rapidly changing business landscape.


Very well, I believe we have covered a lot of ground about critical thinking. Do you think there is something else we should be talking about before we move on to our keywords and phrases?


I think we’ve had a pretty comprehensive dive into critical thinking. We’ve covered what it is, how to recognize and improve it in ourselves, its application in schools and workplaces, and tackled some common biases that can hinder it. We’ve pretty much touched on the key aspects.

However, it’s always good to remember that critical thinking is an ongoing journey. It’s not just about understanding the concept, but also about continuously applying and practicing it in different aspects of our lives. It evolves as we encounter new experiences, challenges, and information.

Also, while we’ve discussed the practical side of critical thinking, it’s important to acknowledge the mindset part. Being open to new ideas, willing to change your mind, and staying curious are all crucial elements of a critical thinker’s mindset.

So, unless you have any specific areas you’d like to delve deeper into, I think we’ve set a solid foundation for our listeners to understand and start applying critical thinking in their lives. Let’s gear up for the Word Power segment!


I guess we’re good to go to our next segment Word Power. In the next segment, we’re going to shed light on some of the keywords and phrases we used in our discussion today and we will explain the meaning of these words in detail so that you can use them in your own conversations and when you talk about critical thinking, you will have enough words to express your thoughts clearly about this topic. Word Power is coming next. Don’t go anywhere; we’ll be right back.


Welcome back to English Plus Podcast. We’ve been talking about critical thinking for a while, and now it’s time to dig in a little deeper into some of the keywords and phrases that we used in our discussion today. What do you think are the most important ten keywords and phrases we should be focusing on?


Well, Critical thinking is intertwined with a rich vocabulary that can really elevate a conversation on the topic. Here are ten keywords and phrases that stand out:

  1. Critical Thinking: The process of actively analyzing, synthesizing, and evaluating information to reach an answer or conclusion.
  2. Analytical Skills: The ability to deconstruct information into smaller categories in order to draw conclusions.
  3. Problem-Solving: The process of finding solutions to difficult or complex issues.
  4. Cognitive Biases: Patterns of thinking that can lead to perceptual distortion, inaccurate judgment, or illogical interpretation.
  5. Inquiry-Based Learning: An educational approach where the emphasis is on the student’s role in asking questions and seeking answers.
  6. Interdisciplinary Learning: Integrating knowledge and methodologies from different disciplines to enhance learning and problem-solving.
  7. Reflective Thinking: The process of considering and analyzing one’s own thoughts, beliefs, and actions.
  8. Heuristic: A mental shortcut that allows people to solve problems and make judgments quickly and efficiently.
  9. Groupthink: The practice of thinking or making decisions as a group in a way that discourages creativity or individual responsibility.
  10. Confirmation Bias: The tendency to search for, interpret, favor, and recall information in a way that confirms one’s preexisting beliefs or hypotheses.

Each of these terms plays a significant role in the realm of critical thinking and understanding them deeply can really enhance one’s ability to engage in and discuss complex thought processes.


Very interesting words and phrases indeed. Let’s dive deeper into two of them. I’m interested in learning more about interdisciplinary learning and heuristics.


Absolutely, let’s delve into those:

  1. Interdisciplinary Learning: This approach goes beyond the traditional boundaries of separate subjects or disciplines. It’s about integrating knowledge and methods from different disciplines to create a more comprehensive understanding of a topic or to solve complex problems. For example, consider a topic like climate change. Understanding it fully requires knowledge from environmental science, economics, political science, and sociology. Interdisciplinary learning encourages students or learners to make connections between these fields, fostering a more holistic understanding and innovative solutions. It’s like using a multi-lens camera to capture a complete picture rather than just a single-lens perspective.
  2. Heuristics: Heuristics are like mental shortcuts or rules of thumb that our brain uses to make decisions and judgments quickly. They simplify the complex process of making sense of the world around us. However, while heuristics are efficient, they can sometimes lead to errors or biases in thinking. A common example is the “availability heuristic,” where people judge the frequency or likelihood of something based on how easily examples come to mind. For instance, if you’ve recently read about airplane accidents, you might overestimate the risks of flying, even though statistically it’s very safe. Understanding heuristics is crucial in critical thinking because it helps us recognize when our judgments might be influenced by these mental shortcuts and not just by rational analysis.

Both interdisciplinary learning and heuristics are key concepts in the realm of critical thinking and learning. They offer insights into how we can broaden our understanding of complex issues and how our minds work in simplifying the world around us.


Excellent! So, before we move on to our next segment, do you think there are some other words and phrases that might be useful to learn from our topic today? You know, after all, we’re English Plus — helping people improve their English is definitely part of our mission here.


Certainly! Here are a few more terms that are not only relevant to our topic of critical thinking but also valuable additions to anyone’s English vocabulary:

  1. Synthesize: To combine a number of things into a coherent whole. In critical thinking, it refers to the ability to integrate various pieces of information or viewpoints into a comprehensive perspective.
  2. Objectivity: The quality of being based on facts and without influence from personal feelings or biases. In critical thinking, it’s crucial to remain objective and not let personal prejudices cloud judgment.
  3. Rationalize: To provide a rational explanation or reason for something, often after the fact. It’s important to differentiate between rationalizing (making excuses) and reasoning (logical thinking).
  4. Skepticism: An attitude of doubt or a disposition to incredulity either in general or toward a particular object. Critical thinkers often employ a healthy level of skepticism to avoid accepting conclusions without sufficient evidence.
  5. Paradigm Shift: A fundamental change in approach or underlying assumptions. In critical thinking, recognizing a paradigm shift can be key to understanding how and why certain solutions or ideas might be more relevant than others in a changing context.
  6. Cognitive Dissonance: The mental discomfort experienced by a person who holds two or more contradictory beliefs, ideas, or values at the same time. Awareness of cognitive dissonance is important in critical thinking, as it can highlight areas where one’s beliefs and reality may not align.
  7. Empirical Evidence: Information acquired by observation or experimentation. Critical thinkers rely on empirical evidence rather than just theory or belief.

Adding these terms to your vocabulary arsenal not only beefs up your English language skills but also enhances your ability to engage in and discuss intellectually stimulating topics.


Very well, now that we have talked about some of the most important keywords and phrases from our topic, let’s move on to our next segment, Frequently Asked Questions and Myth Buster, where we will answer some of the most commonly asked questions about critical thinking and debunk some of the myths circling around it. Don’t go anywhere, we’ll be right back.


Welcome back to the third segment of our episode today. And let’s take some of the commonly asked questions and myths head on. Let me start with the very first question, well maybe we did mention it earlier, but it’s very important, so I will ask again, Is critical thinking innate or can it be taught?


That’s a great question to start with, and it’s definitely worth revisiting. The short answer is: Critical thinking can be taught and developed. It’s not just an innate ability that some people are born with and others aren’t.

There’s a common misconception that critical thinking is a natural gift – that you either have it or you don’t. But in reality, it’s more like a muscle. Just as you can strengthen your physical muscles with exercise, you can develop your critical thinking skills with practice and training.

Research in educational psychology supports this. Studies have shown that when students are taught specific strategies for critical thinking, they can improve their ability to reason, analyze information, and solve problems.

The key is exposure to the right kind of educational experiences – ones that challenge students to think deeply, question assumptions, and evaluate evidence. This can happen at any age, proving that it’s never too late to start developing these skills.

So, in summary, critical thinking is a skill that can and should be taught and honed. It’s an empowering tool that enhances our ability to navigate the complexities of the world more effectively.


Excellent! Now on to our next question. Can critical thinking be detrimental in any way?


That’s an intriguing question! While critical thinking is largely beneficial, there are scenarios where it might be seen as having negative side effects. Here are a few considerations:

  1. Analysis Paralysis: Sometimes, excessive critical thinking can lead to overanalyzing situations, making it difficult to make decisions. This “analysis paralysis” occurs when someone becomes so lost in dissecting the details that they can’t take action.
  2. Social Situations: In certain social contexts, being overly critical can be perceived as argumentative or confrontational. It’s important to balance critical thinking with emotional intelligence and empathy, especially in sensitive personal interactions.
  3. Mental Strain: Constant critical thinking can be mentally exhausting. Just like any form of intense mental activity, it requires energy and can lead to fatigue if not balanced with relaxation and downtime.
  4. Creativity Block: There’s a belief that overly analytical thinking might stifle creativity. Creative thinking often requires a free-flowing, unrestricted thought process, which can sometimes be hindered by rigorous critical analysis.

However, it’s important to note that these potential downsides are not inherent flaws of critical thinking itself, but rather consequences of its overuse or misapplication. Used appropriately, critical thinking is an immensely valuable skill. The key is to apply it judiciously and balance it with other aspects of human cognition and emotion.


Very well, one more question. How does critical thinking contribute to innovation?


Critical thinking and innovation are like two sides of the same coin. They complement each other beautifully. Here’s how critical thinking contributes to innovation:

  1. Challenging the Status Quo: Critical thinking involves questioning existing beliefs and methods. This questioning is the first step towards innovation, as it opens the door to new ways of thinking and doing things.
  2. Identifying Underlying Problems: Innovation often starts with identifying problems that haven’t been clearly seen before. Critical thinkers excel at digging beneath the surface to uncover these root issues, which can then be targeted for innovative solutions.
  3. Generating New Ideas: By analyzing information from different perspectives, critical thinkers can synthesize diverse ideas and come up with creative solutions. They’re adept at connecting seemingly unrelated dots to create something novel.
  4. Evaluating Ideas Rigorously: Innovation isn’t just about having new ideas; it’s also about validating them. Critical thinkers are skilled at assessing the feasibility and potential impact of ideas, helping to refine them and turn them into viable innovations.
  5. Encouraging Open-Mindedness: Critical thinking fosters an open-minded approach. By being open to new ideas and willing to change one’s mind based on evidence, critical thinkers create a conducive environment for innovation.
  6. Risk Analysis: Critical thinking involves considering potential risks and rewards. This analytical approach helps in making calculated decisions when pursuing innovative projects, ensuring that risks are managed and benefits maximized.

In a nutshell, critical thinking is the engine that powers the vehicle of innovation. It’s not just about coming up with new ideas; it’s about thinking through these ideas critically to turn them into impactful innovations.


I totally agree with you. Now on to the next question. Are critical thinkers always rational?


That’s a thought-provoking question. Ideally, critical thinkers strive to be rational, basing their judgments and decisions on logic and evidence. However, it’s important to remember that critical thinkers are still human, and no human is perfectly rational all the time. Here are a few reasons why:

  1. Emotional Influence: Emotions can influence anyone’s thinking, even the most critical thinkers. While critical thinking involves striving for objectivity, emotions can sometimes color our judgments and decisions.
  2. Cognitive Biases: As we discussed earlier, everyone has inherent biases. Critical thinkers try to be aware of and control these biases, but they’re not immune to them. These biases can sometimes lead to less-than-rational conclusions.
  3. Limited Information: Critical thinking depends on the information at hand. Sometimes, decisions must be made with incomplete information, which can lead to rationality being compromised.
  4. Complexity of Situations: Some situations are so complex that arriving at a completely rational decision is incredibly challenging. In these cases, critical thinkers do their best, but the outcomes might not always be perfectly rational.
  5. Personal Values and Ethics: Sometimes, personal values and ethical considerations might lead a critical thinker to make a decision that, while not entirely rational, aligns with their personal beliefs.

So, while critical thinking aims for rationality, it’s a journey rather than a destination. Critical thinkers continually strive to improve their rationality but acknowledging human limitations is also a part of the process.


And one final question before we move on to debunking some myths. How does technology impact critical thinking?


Technology’s impact on critical thinking is a double-edged sword; it offers both opportunities and challenges. Let’s break it down:

  1. Access to Information: Technology provides unprecedented access to vast amounts of information. This can enhance critical thinking by allowing us to research, compare, and analyze different viewpoints and data quickly. However, it also requires us to be adept at distinguishing between credible and non-credible sources.
  2. Information Overload: The sheer volume of information available can be overwhelming. This overload can make it challenging to process information critically, leading to superficial understanding or snap judgments.
  3. Echo Chambers: Online platforms often create echo chambers, where we’re exposed primarily to views that reinforce our existing beliefs. This can hinder critical thinking, as we’re not challenged to consider opposing viewpoints.
  4. Automation and AI: With many tasks being automated, there’s a risk of becoming overly reliant on technology for problem-solving. This can potentially lead to a decline in our own critical thinking abilities if we’re not mindful.
  5. Critical Thinking Tools: On the flip side, technology provides tools that can aid in critical thinking. From analytical software to educational apps that teach logic and reasoning skills, technology can be a powerful ally in developing critical thinking.
  6. Enhanced Collaboration: Technology enables collaboration across geographical boundaries, exposing us to diverse perspectives and ways of thinking. This can be a boon for critical thinking, as it encourages the synthesis of different ideas and viewpoints.

In summary, technology impacts critical thinking in significant ways. It offers tools and opportunities to enhance our thinking, but also presents challenges that require us to be vigilant and proactive in maintaining and developing our critical thinking skills in the digital age.


Very well, now let’s move on to a common misconception or myth about critical thinking. Some people think that critical thinking and skepticism are the same. What do you think about that?


That’s a common myth indeed, and it’s important to clarify the distinction. Critical thinking and skepticism are related, but they’re not the same.

Skepticism is generally about doubt and questioning – it’s a skeptical attitude that doesn’t readily accept claims without evidence. Skeptics tend to challenge the validity of assertions and seek proof. While skepticism is an element of critical thinking, it’s just one part of it.

Critical thinking, on the other hand, is broader. It’s not just about doubting; it’s a methodical process of evaluating information. This process includes questioning, yes, but also involves analyzing arguments, evaluating evidence, recognizing biases, and forming reasoned conclusions. Critical thinking is about being open to new ideas and changing your position when the evidence warrants it, whereas skepticism can sometimes lead to outright dismissal without thorough consideration.

In essence, skepticism can kickstart the process of critical thinking by prompting us to question and not accept things at face value. However, critical thinking goes beyond skepticism by actively engaging with the information to reach a well-reasoned conclusion.


And there’s this other myth which claims that you can’t measure or assess critical thinking. What do you think about that. Is that true?


The myth that critical thinking can’t be measured or assessed stems from the fact that it’s a complex and multifaceted skill, not easily quantifiable like a simple right or wrong answer in a math test. However, it’s not accurate to say it can’t be measured or assessed at all. It’s just that the methods of assessment need to be more nuanced and sophisticated.

Here are some ways critical thinking can be assessed:

  1. Standardized Tests: There are standardized tests designed specifically to assess critical thinking skills, like the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal. These tests often use scenarios and questions that require analysis, inference, and evaluation.
  2. Rubrics for Specific Skills: Educators and evaluators can use detailed rubrics to assess components of critical thinking, such as the ability to identify assumptions, evaluate arguments, and draw conclusions.
  3. Written Essays: Analyzing written essays is a common way to assess a student’s ability to argue logically, provide evidence, and present coherent ideas.
  4. Portfolios: A portfolio of a student’s work over time can provide a more comprehensive picture of their critical thinking skills.
  5. Reflections and Discussions: Engaging students in reflections about their thought process and discussions about complex issues can also provide insights into their critical thinking abilities.

While it’s more challenging to assess critical thinking than more straightforward skills, it’s certainly possible and increasingly important in both educational and professional settings. The key is using a variety of methods to get a full picture of an individual’s critical thinking abilities.


There’s also the common myth which claims that critical thinking is purely logical and doesn’t involve emotions. Is that true?


That’s a myth that deserves some clarification. While critical thinking is often associated with logic and rational analysis, it’s not entirely devoid of emotions. In fact, emotions play a crucial role in critical thinking. Here’s how:

  1. Emotions as a Source of Information: Our emotional responses can provide valuable information. For example, an emotional reaction to a particular argument might signal underlying values or beliefs that need to be examined.
  2. Motivation: Emotions can drive us to think critically. For instance, passion about a topic can motivate us to dig deeper, question assumptions, and seek more information.
  3. Balancing Emotions and Logic: Effective critical thinking involves balancing emotional responses with logical analysis. It’s about recognizing and regulating emotions so they don’t overshadow objective reasoning, but also not completely disregarding them.
  4. Empathy in Critical Thinking: Understanding others’ perspectives is a key aspect of critical thinking, and this requires empathy – an emotional skill.
  5. Impact on Decision Making: Our decisions are often influenced by emotions, whether we realize it or not. Acknowledging and understanding these emotional influences is an important part of the critical thinking process.

Thus, while critical thinking emphasizes logical reasoning, it’s not at the expense of emotions. Rather, it involves an awareness and integration of emotions in the reasoning process. The goal is to use both emotional insights and logical analysis to come to more balanced and reasoned conclusions.


And some people say that critical thinkers always make the right decisions. I find that hard to believe. What do you think?


You’re right to be skeptical about that statement. The idea that critical thinkers always make the right decisions is indeed a myth. Critical thinking significantly improves the quality of decision-making, but it doesn’t guarantee infallibility. Here’s why:

  1. Limited Information: Decisions are often made with incomplete information. Critical thinkers can analyze and evaluate the information they have, but they can’t account for what they don’t know.
  2. Complexity of Problems: Some problems are incredibly complex with no clear ‘right’ answer. Critical thinkers can navigate these complexities better, but that doesn’t always lead to a perfect solution.
  3. Human Error: Critical thinkers, like all people, are susceptible to errors in judgment, misinterpretation of data, or simply overlooking important details.
  4. Changing Circumstances: The best decision at one moment might not be the best in another. Circumstances change, and what seemed like a right decision initially might turn out to be less effective in light of new developments.
  5. Subjectivity: Many decisions involve personal values or ethical considerations, which are inherently subjective. What’s right for one person may not be right for another.

Critical thinking enhances decision-making by providing a structured and effective approach to evaluating information and considering options. However, it operates within the bounds of human limitations and the complexities of real-world situations. So, while critical thinkers are more likely to make well-reasoned decisions, being a critical thinker doesn’t make one infallible.


What about spontaneity and intuition. Some people say that critical thinking kills those two. Do you agree with that?


The belief that critical thinking kills spontaneity and intuition is a common misconception. Rather than diminishing these qualities, critical thinking can actually complement and enhance them. Here’s how:

  1. Balancing Spontaneity and Deliberation: Critical thinking doesn’t mean abandoning spontaneity. Instead, it provides a balance. It helps in making sure that our spontaneous decisions are not just impulsive but have a solid foundation. In situations that allow for it, critical thinking can be a quick, almost intuitive process.
  2. Informed Intuition: Intuition isn’t just about ‘gut feelings’; it’s often an unconscious synthesis of accumulated knowledge and experiences. Critical thinking can refine intuition by providing a framework for evaluating those experiences and knowledge more rigorously.
  3. Enhancing Creativity: Far from stifling creativity, critical thinking can foster it. By questioning assumptions and exploring alternatives, critical thinking can lead to innovative and creative solutions that intuition alone might not reach.
  4. Quality Control for Intuition: Critical thinking acts as a quality check for intuition. It allows you to assess whether your intuitive decisions are based on sound reasoning and facts, or whether they might be influenced by biases or flawed logic.
  5. Flexibility in Thinking: Effective critical thinkers are flexible in their approach. They know when to rely on careful analysis and when to trust their instincts, adapting their thinking style to suit the situation.

So, critical thinking and intuition/spontaneity are not mutually exclusive. They can, and often do, work hand in hand to enhance decision-making and problem-solving abilities. Critical thinking provides the tools to evaluate and refine our instincts and spontaneous ideas, making them more reliable and effective.


And there’s one final misconception people have about critical thinking. Some people think that young children can’t learn critical thinking. Is that true? Is it truly for adults or older people only?


That’s another myth that needs debunking. Young children are not only capable of learning critical thinking skills, but they can greatly benefit from early exposure to these concepts. Here’s why:

  1. Natural Curiosity: Young children are naturally curious, always asking “why” and exploring their environment. This curiosity lays a perfect foundation for critical thinking, which involves questioning and exploring ideas.
  2. Developmental Benefits: Introducing critical thinking at a young age supports cognitive development. It helps children learn how to think, not just what to think, fostering independent problem-solving and decision-making skills.
  3. Adaptability: Children are incredibly adaptable and can absorb new concepts quickly. Early exposure to critical thinking means these skills become ingrained and intuitive as they grow.
  4. Play-Based Learning: Critical thinking for children doesn’t have to be formal or structured like it is for adults. It can be integrated into play-based learning, where children learn to think critically in a fun and engaging way.
  5. Building Blocks for Future Learning: Early critical thinking skills set the stage for academic and personal success later in life. Children who develop these skills are better prepared for the challenges of higher education and the workforce.

Therefore, it’s not only possible but also highly beneficial to teach critical thinking to young children. The key is to tailor the approach to be age-appropriate, engaging, and fun, turning their natural curiosity and playfulness into opportunities for critical thinking.


Very well then. We have talked about critical thinking in depth, we talked about how we can employ it in different aspects of our lives. We discussed some keywords and phrases related to critical thinking. And we have just answered some commonly asked questions about critical thinking and debunked some common myths and misconceptions related to critical thinking. We are left with one more thing to do, and that is to discuss critical thinking in real life. Don’t go anywhere, because in the last segment of our episode, In Real Life, we will talk about critical thinking in real life situations where it helped people and in other situations where it burned them out. That’s coming next. We’ll be right back.


And now we’re back to our episode to talk about critical thinking in real life. Tell me Phoenix, do you recall any stories where critical thinking really made a difference in people’s lives?


Absolutely, there are countless instances where critical thinking has played a crucial role in people’s lives, both in small daily decisions and in major life-changing situations. Let’s look at a couple of examples:

  1. Healthcare Decisions: Consider the story of a family deciding on a treatment plan for a seriously ill relative. Faced with various medical opinions and treatment options, they used critical thinking to research, ask insightful questions to doctors, weigh the pros and cons, and consider the patient’s quality of life. Their ability to think critically led them to choose a treatment that was less aggressive but more aligned with the patient’s values and quality of life preferences. This decision profoundly impacted their loved one’s final years, making them more comfortable and meaningful.
  2. Career Changes: I recall a story of an individual feeling unfulfilled in their corporate job. Instead of impulsively quitting or passively accepting their dissatisfaction, they employed critical thinking. They analyzed their skills, passions, and the market needs. They spoke to mentors and peers, and methodically planned a transition into a different field. This thoughtful approach led to a successful career change and significantly improved their job satisfaction and overall well-being.

On the flip side, there are also stories where a lack of critical thinking led to less favorable outcomes. For instance, someone might invest in a business venture without thoroughly researching it or considering the risks, only to face significant financial loss.

These real-life examples highlight the practical benefits of critical thinking in making informed, balanced decisions that consider both the logical aspects and the human elements involved. They also show how a lack of critical thinking can lead to pitfalls, especially in situations where emotions run high or when decisions have significant consequences.


Well, now let’s talk about some instances when too much critical thinking backfired and caused more damage than good. Can you recall any examples of that happening?


Certainly, there are situations where excessive or misapplied critical thinking can backfire. These usually occur when over-analysis leads to indecision, missed opportunities, or strained relationships. Here are a couple of examples:

  1. Business Decisions: In the business world, there’s a term called “analysis paralysis,” where leaders or teams overthink decisions to the point of inaction. For instance, a company might miss out on a crucial market opportunity because they spent too much time over-analyzing market data and competitors, and not enough time acting. By the time they reached a decision, the market had shifted, and the opportunity was lost.
  2. Personal Relationships: Overthinking can also strain personal relationships. There was a case where someone continually doubted their partner’s intentions, analyzing every action and word, seeking hidden meanings or potential problems. This constant scrutiny and lack of trust eventually led to the relationship’s breakdown. Here, an excess of critical thinking, without balancing trust and emotional understanding, caused more harm than good.
  3. Mental Health: Excessive critical thinking can sometimes spiral into rumination, a form of unhealthy overthinking that’s linked to anxiety and depression. People who constantly analyze past conversations, decisions, or actions may find themselves trapped in a cycle of overthinking that hampers their mental well-being and decision-making ability.

These instances illustrate that while critical thinking is a valuable skill, it’s important to use it judiciously and in balance with other factors like intuition, emotion, and timing. Knowing when to pause analysis and make a decision, or when to trust your instincts, is as crucial as the ability to think critically.


Very well. I believe we did cover a lot of ground and I hope our listeners today finished the episode a bit wiser with all this information we shared about critical thinking. Do you have anything to add before we sign off?


It’s been a fantastic discussion, and I hope our listeners found it as enlightening and enjoyable as I did. If there’s one thing to take away, it’s that critical thinking is a valuable skill that can be developed and applied in all areas of life. It’s about being curious, open-minded, and analytical, but also knowing when to balance these with intuition and empathy.

Remember, critical thinking isn’t just for solving big problems; it’s also for the small, everyday decisions that shape our lives. It’s a lifelong journey of learning, questioning, and growing. So, keep asking questions, stay curious, and enjoy the process of thinking deeply about the world around you.

Thank you for tuning in, and keep nurturing that critical mind!


A big thanks indeed to all of you who tuned in and listened to English Plus Podcast. We will be back with more interesting topics, stories and English in our upcoming episodes so make sure you never miss anything we publish in our podcast by following our podcast on your favorite podcast listening app. And if you believe the things we talked about today are of value to your family and friends, please share our episode and podcast with them and help us reach more people.

And of course, if you want to take your support a step further, consider supporting us on Patreon. The link is in the description of the episode. Your support is what keeps us going in any form it comes, so please keep it coming.

And also don’t miss out on the treasure trove of learning on our website englishpluspodcast.com. There, you will find our magazine articles, our podcast network, our video series, and much more.

Again, a big thanks from me and Phoenix for joining us today. This is Danny signing off and we will see you again in a new episode. Never stop learning with English Plus.


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<a href="https://englishpluspodcast.com/author/dannyballanowner/" target="_self">Danny Ballan</a>

Danny Ballan


Danny is a podcaster, teacher, and writer. He worked in educational technology for over a decade. He creates daily podcasts, online courses, educational videos, educational games, and he also writes poetry, novels and music.

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