- Understanding the Gender Pay Gap
- Addressing the Gender Pay Gap
- Empowering Women for Economic Equality
- Key Takeaways:
- You Might Still Be Wondering about…
- How does occupational segregation contribute to the gender pay gap, and what can be done to address it?
- What role do unconscious biases play in perpetuating the gender pay gap, and how can they be mitigated?
- How do family-friendly policies impact women’s economic empowerment and bridge the pay gap?
- What are some successful examples of countries or companies that have made significant progress in reducing the gender pay gap?
- How can education and career guidance help in challenging gender stereotypes and increasing women’s participation in higher-paying fields?
- What are the potential benefits, both economic and societal, of achieving gender pay equality?
- How can organizations foster a culture of gender equality and create equal opportunities for women’s career advancement?
- What are some potential challenges in implementing legislative changes to address the gender pay gap, and how can they be overcome?
- What strategies can be employed to encourage women to negotiate for higher salaries and assert themselves in the workplace?
- How can men be allies in the fight for gender equality and the elimination of the gender pay gap?
- Common Misconceptions
- The gender pay gap is solely caused by women’s choices or lack of negotiation skills.
- The gender pay gap only affects low-income or unskilled workers.
- The gender pay gap is a temporary issue that will naturally disappear over time.
- Affirmative action for women leads to unfair advantages and discrimination against men.
- Women don’t prioritize their careers as much as men, leading to lower wages.
- Women are less qualified or skilled than men, justifying lower pay.
- The gender pay gap is a problem only in developing countries.
- Women are less productive than men, leading to lower compensation.
- Women should be satisfied with part-time or flexible work, which justifies lower pay.
- The gender pay gap is a women’s issue and doesn’t concern men.
- Real Life Examples
- What People Say about This…
- What Can We Do?
- Extra Resources:
Gender Equality: Addressing the Persistent Gender Pay Gap And Empowering Women
The topic of gender equality is as relevant today as it was in the previous century. One significant issue persisting despite widespread awareness and numerous interventions is the gender pay gap. The gender pay gap refers to the average difference in earnings between men and women, often manifesting as women earning less than men for performing equivalent work. This difference is not only a grave societal injustice but also a profound economic issue that hinders sustainable development. We will seek to critically examine the issue of the gender pay gap and provide insight into the process of empowering women to help eradicate this inequality.
Understanding the Gender Pay Gap
Despite legislative provisions aimed at ensuring equal pay for equal work, a stark disparity in earnings persists between genders worldwide. This disparity is not confined to any particular sector but spans all industries, education levels, and age groups. Various factors contribute to the gender pay gap, including occupational segregation, discrimination in hiring and pay decisions, a lack of family-friendly policies, and societal norms and stereotypes that influence women’s career choices and opportunities.
Occupational segregation refers to the concentration of women and men in different types of work, which leads to women often being found in lower-paying jobs. Predominantly female sectors, like healthcare or education, tend to be undervalued and underpaid compared to predominantly male sectors. This segregation often stems from societal expectations and stereotypes about ‘women’s work’ versus ‘men’s work.’
Despite numerous laws prohibiting discrimination, both conscious and unconscious biases persist, influencing hiring and pay decisions. Women often face discriminatory practices, such as being paid less than their male counterparts for the same work or being passed over for promotions due to gender stereotypes or assumptions about their dedication to their careers, particularly if they have children.
Lack of Family-Friendly Policies:
The responsibility of child-rearing and family care predominantly falls on women, leading many to take career breaks or seek part-time work, contributing to a lower overall income compared to men. A lack of family-friendly policies, like flexible work hours, parental leave, and affordable childcare, exacerbates this issue.
Societal Norms and Stereotypes:
Societal norms and stereotypes shape women’s career choices and opportunities from a young age. Girls are often subtly discouraged from pursuing STEM fields, contributing to their underrepresentation in these lucrative sectors. Stereotypes about leadership capabilities can also impede women’s career advancement, further contributing to the gender pay gap.
Addressing the Gender Pay Gap
Solving the gender pay gap requires a multi-pronged approach that tackles all the underlying issues. It necessitates changes at all levels, from policy amendments and corporate practices to societal attitudes.
Governments must strengthen and enforce laws ensuring equal pay for equal work, and penalties for non-compliance should be stringent enough to deter violations. There should be laws mandating transparency in wage structures, which would enable women to understand if they are being paid fairly.
Companies need to proactively address the gender pay gap by adopting transparent pay scales and implementing unbiased hiring and promotion practices. They should also provide family-friendly policies that help women balance their careers with their family responsibilities.
Education and Career Guidance:
By encouraging girls to pursue fields traditionally dominated by men, such as STEM, and providing them with female role models in these sectors, we can help break the cycle of occupational segregation. Career guidance should be free from gender bias, allowing individuals to explore all possible career paths.
Shifting Societal Attitudes:
Ultimately, to address the gender pay gap, society’s attitudes towards women and work need to change. Gender stereotypes need to be dismantled, and the societal expectations placed on women need to evolve. This involves recognizing and valuing the contributions that women make in the workplace and respecting the choices they make in their personal lives.
Empowering Women for Economic Equality
Empowering women is a critical aspect of addressing the gender pay gap. Empowerment is about giving women the tools, resources, and opportunities they need to make decisions and effect change in their lives.
Education and Training:
Education is a powerful tool for empowerment. Providing girls with a quality education that encompasses all fields of study gives them the foundation they need to enter any career they choose. Training programs can also help women develop the skills they need to advance in their careers and move into higher-paying roles.
Giving women opportunities to take on leadership roles can help break down stereotypes about women’s abilities and pave the way for more women to follow. Companies should actively promote women into leadership positions and provide mentorship programs to support their advancement.
Women should have equal access to financial resources and services, such as credit and investment opportunities. This enables them to start businesses, invest in their education, and make other decisions that can improve their economic status.
Advocacy and Representation:
Women need to be represented in decision-making processes at all levels, from corporate boardrooms to governmental bodies. Having a voice in these settings allows women to advocate for policies that address the gender pay gap and promote gender equality.
Building Confidence and Agency:
Empowering women isn’t just about providing opportunities; it’s also about building their confidence and agency. Women should be encouraged to negotiate for higher salaries and assert themselves in the workplace. They should be equipped with the confidence to challenge gender norms and stand up against discrimination.
Addressing the gender pay gap is a complex issue that requires a multifaceted approach. By understanding the root causes of the pay gap, we can implement targeted strategies to address it. Empowering women is a key part of this solution, as it allows women to take control of their economic futures and break down the barriers that contribute to the pay gap.
The journey towards gender equality in pay is a long one, filled with numerous challenges. However, the benefits of achieving this goal are immeasurable. Not only would it represent a significant stride towards gender equality, but it would also lead to a more just and equitable society. As we move forward, it is imperative that we continue to advocate for changes at all levels and empower women to take charge of their economic destinies. The persistent gender pay gap is not insurmountable, and with concerted effort and unwavering commitment, we can build a world where every individual is valued and compensated fairly, regardless of their gender.
- Gender pay gap: The average difference in earnings between men and women, often resulting in women earning less than men for performing equivalent work.
- Occupational segregation: The concentration of women and men in different types of work, leading to women being found in lower-paying jobs compared to men.
- Discrimination: Unfair treatment or biased practices based on gender, resulting in women being paid less than their male counterparts for the same work or facing barriers to career advancement.
- Family-friendly policies: Workplace policies that support employees in balancing their work and family responsibilities, such as flexible work hours, parental leave, and affordable childcare.
- Societal norms and stereotypes: Widely held beliefs and expectations about gender roles and behaviors that influence women’s career choices and opportunities, often limiting their earning potential.
- Legislative changes: Amendments to laws and regulations aimed at ensuring equal pay for equal work and enforcing penalties for non-compliance.
- Corporate policies: Policies implemented by companies to address the gender pay gap, including transparent pay scales, unbiased hiring and promotion practices, and family-friendly initiatives.
- Empowerment: The process of giving women the tools, resources, and opportunities they need to make decisions, effect change, and improve their economic status.
- Education and training: Providing girls and women with access to quality education and skills training to enhance their career prospects and increase their earning potential.
- Advocacy and representation: Promoting the representation of women in decision-making processes at all levels and advocating for policies that promote gender equality.
- The gender pay gap persists despite legal provisions, and it affects women across industries, education levels, and age groups.
- Occupational segregation and discrimination in hiring and pay decisions contribute to the gender pay gap.
- Lack of family-friendly policies and societal norms and stereotypes limit women’s earning potential.
- Legislative changes, corporate policies, and societal attitude shifts are necessary to bridge the gender pay gap.
- Empowering women through education, leadership opportunities, economic empowerment, and building confidence is crucial in addressing the pay gap.
You Might Still Be Wondering about…
How does occupational segregation contribute to the gender pay gap, and what can be done to address it?
Occupational segregation occurs when women and men are concentrated in different types of jobs, leading to disparities in pay. This contributes to the gender pay gap because jobs predominantly held by women are often undervalued and paid less. Additionally, male-dominated fields tend to offer higher salaries. To address occupational segregation, it is essential to challenge gender stereotypes and biases that influence career choices. This can be achieved through promoting equal access to education and career guidance that encourages girls and women to explore a wide range of professions. Organizations and industries must also work towards creating inclusive and diverse workplaces, eliminating barriers to entry and career advancement for underrepresented genders.
What role do unconscious biases play in perpetuating the gender pay gap, and how can they be mitigated?
Unconscious biases are deeply ingrained societal beliefs and attitudes that affect decision-making processes, often leading to discriminatory outcomes. These biases can influence salary negotiations, hiring decisions, and promotion opportunities, perpetuating the gender pay gap. To mitigate unconscious biases, organizations can implement training programs to raise awareness and sensitivity among employees. Establishing structured and objective evaluation criteria for hiring, promotions, and salary adjustments can also help reduce the impact of biases. Diverse hiring panels and inclusive policies can contribute to more equitable decision-making processes.
How do family-friendly policies impact women’s economic empowerment and bridge the pay gap?
Family-friendly policies, such as flexible work arrangements, parental leave, and affordable childcare, play a crucial role in supporting women’s economic empowerment and reducing the gender pay gap. These policies enable women to balance their work and family responsibilities more effectively, minimizing the need to compromise their careers. Flexible work arrangements allow women to maintain employment while accommodating caregiving responsibilities. Longer parental leave periods provide women with the opportunity to recover from childbirth, bond with their children, and continue their careers without undue pressure. Affordable and accessible childcare options remove barriers to workforce participation. Implementing family-friendly policies requires collaboration between governments, employers, and society to create an environment that supports women’s economic empowerment.
What are some successful examples of countries or companies that have made significant progress in reducing the gender pay gap?
Several countries and companies have made notable progress in reducing the gender pay gap. Iceland, for instance, has implemented robust legislation and proactive policies to address pay inequality. They introduced mandatory equal pay certification, requiring employers to demonstrate equal pay for equal work. Companies like Salesforce, a technology company, have conducted comprehensive pay audits, adjusted salaries where discrepancies were found, and committed to regular monitoring to ensure pay equity. These examples demonstrate the importance of combining legislative measures, transparent reporting, and proactive initiatives to achieve significant progress in reducing the gender pay gap.
How can education and career guidance help in challenging gender stereotypes and increasing women’s participation in higher-paying fields?
Education and career guidance play a pivotal role in challenging gender stereotypes and increasing women’s participation in higher-paying fields. By providing comprehensive and inclusive education, young girls and women can be exposed to a wide range of career possibilities, including traditionally male-dominated fields such as STEM. Career guidance programs can offer mentorship and role models, showcasing successful women in these fields. It is also crucial to challenge gender biases and stereotypes in educational materials, curricula, and classroom practices. Additionally, creating supportive environments where girls and women feel encouraged and empowered to pursue their career aspirations is essential. Collaboration between educational institutions, parents, and society at large is necessary to ensure equal opportunities and promote gender equality in education and career paths.
What are the potential benefits, both economic and societal, of achieving gender pay equality?
Achieving gender pay equality has far-reaching economic and societal benefits. Economically, closing the gender pay gap can lead to increased productivity and economic growth. When women are compensated fairly, they are more motivated and engaged in their work. This can result in reduced turnover rates, improved job satisfaction, and enhanced company performance. Moreover, women tend to invest a significant portion of their income back into their families and communities, leading to positive economic ripple effects. Societally, gender pay equality promotes social justice, equality, and inclusivity. It sets an example for future generations and helps dismantle harmful gender norms and stereotypes. Achieving gender pay equality fosters a more equitable society where all individuals have equal opportunities to thrive and contribute to their full potential.
How can organizations foster a culture of gender equality and create equal opportunities for women’s career advancement?
Organizations can foster a culture of gender equality and create equal opportunities for women’s career advancement through several strategies. Firstly, implementing policies and practices that promote diversity and inclusion is crucial. This includes establishing transparent promotion and hiring processes, offering mentorship and sponsorship programs, and providing training on unconscious bias and inclusive leadership. Additionally, organizations can conduct regular pay audits to identify and address any gender pay disparities. Providing flexible work arrangements and family-friendly policies supports work-life balance for both men and women. By promoting a culture of respect, inclusivity, and equal opportunities, organizations can create an environment where women can thrive and advance in their careers.
What are some potential challenges in implementing legislative changes to address the gender pay gap, and how can they be overcome?
Implementing legislative changes to address the gender pay gap can present challenges. One challenge is resistance or lack of support from certain employers or industries. Some employers may be reluctant to change existing practices or may dispute the need for intervention. Additionally, enforcing compliance with new legislation and monitoring pay equity can be resource-intensive for regulatory bodies. Overcoming these challenges requires strong advocacy, collaboration between stakeholders, and public awareness campaigns. Engaging with employers through dialogue, showcasing the benefits of pay equity, and providing resources and support for implementation can help foster positive change. Governments can also consider offering incentives or penalties for compliance to encourage employers to take action.
What strategies can be employed to encourage women to negotiate for higher salaries and assert themselves in the workplace?
Encouraging women to negotiate for higher salaries and assert themselves in the workplace requires targeted strategies. Providing negotiation training and workshops specifically tailored to women can build their confidence and skills in advocating for fair compensation. Mentorship programs that pair women with experienced professionals can offer guidance and support in navigating workplace challenges, including salary negotiations. Creating a culture that values assertiveness and open communication, while addressing gender biases, can empower women to speak up for their worth. Organizations can also conduct regular pay audits and proactively address any discrepancies to ensure fairness and transparency in salary negotiations.
How can men be allies in the fight for gender equality and the elimination of the gender pay gap?
Men play a crucial role as allies in the fight for gender equality and the elimination of the gender pay gap. Firstly, men can educate themselves on the issues surrounding gender inequality, including the gender pay gap, to increase their understanding and awareness. They can actively challenge and call out gender bias and discrimination when they witness it in their workplaces or social circles. Men in positions of power and leadership can support and sponsor women by providing mentorship and creating opportunities for their career advancement. By promoting inclusive practices and advocating for fair compensation, men can contribute to creating a more equitable work environment for everyone. Collaboration between men and women is key to achieving true gender equality.
The gender pay gap is solely caused by women’s choices or lack of negotiation skills.
Reality: The pay gap exists even when factors such as education, experience, and occupation are controlled, indicating systemic discrimination. Women’s choices and negotiation skills alone cannot account for the persistent pay gap. Research shows that even when women negotiate for higher salaries, they are often penalized or face backlash compared to men who negotiate for the same amount. Structural and systemic biases, including occupational segregation and discrimination, contribute significantly to the pay gap.
The gender pay gap only affects low-income or unskilled workers.
Reality: The gender pay gap is present across all income levels and professions, including high-paying and male-dominated sectors. Studies have consistently shown that women are paid less than men across various industries, regardless of their skill level or job position. The pay gap affects women at all income levels, from entry-level positions to top executive roles, indicating that it is not limited to specific industries or skill sets.
The gender pay gap is a temporary issue that will naturally disappear over time.
Reality: Without deliberate actions and policy changes, the gender pay gap persists and may take generations to close. While progress has been made over the years, the rate of change is slow, and the gap remains significant. If no further action is taken, it is estimated that it could take several decades or even centuries to achieve pay equality. Closing the gap requires targeted interventions, policy reforms, and a collective commitment to address systemic inequalities.
Affirmative action for women leads to unfair advantages and discrimination against men.
Reality: Affirmative action aims to level the playing field and create equal opportunities, addressing historical disadvantages faced by women. It does not seek to discriminate against men but rather promotes fairness and diversity. Affirmative action programs are designed to break down barriers and ensure that qualified women have access to the same opportunities as their male counterparts. These initiatives are necessary to address the systemic biases that have perpetuated the gender pay gap.
Women don’t prioritize their careers as much as men, leading to lower wages.
Reality: Women’s career choices and priorities are often shaped by societal expectations and limited opportunities, not lack of ambition or dedication. Factors such as caregiving responsibilities, societal pressures, and workplace biases influence women’s career trajectories. Women may face challenges in balancing work and family responsibilities, leading to career interruptions or a focus on more flexible or part-time roles. It is important to create supportive environments that enable women to pursue their career goals and achieve work-life balance without compromising their earning potential.
Women are less qualified or skilled than men, justifying lower pay.
Reality: Numerous studies have shown that women are equally qualified and skilled, yet they still face wage disparities compared to their male counterparts. Education levels and achievements do not explain the gender pay gap. Women often face barriers to advancement and discriminatory practices, regardless of their qualifications. The notion that women are inherently less capable or skilled is unfounded and perpetuates gender bias.
The gender pay gap is a problem only in developing countries.
Reality: The gender pay gap exists worldwide, spanning across developed and developing nations, highlighting the need for global efforts to address it. While the extent of the pay gap may vary across countries, it is a pervasive issue that transcends economic development levels. Developed countries, too, grapple with pay disparities, albeit to varying degrees. Addressing the gender pay gap requires collective action and systemic changes across the globe.
Women are less productive than men, leading to lower compensation.
Reality: There is no evidence to support the notion that women are less productive than men. Productivity is influenced by a range of factors unrelated to gender, such as skills, experience, and work conditions. Studies have consistently shown that women are equally capable of delivering high-quality work and contributing to organizational success. Lower compensation for women cannot be justified by unfounded assumptions about productivity but rather reflects systemic biases and discrimination.
Women should be satisfied with part-time or flexible work, which justifies lower pay.
Reality: Women’s desire for flexible work arrangements should not result in lower wages. Fair pay should be provided for equivalent work, regardless of hours worked. Part-time or flexible work should not be undervalued or serve as a justification for paying women less. It is essential to recognize that women’s contributions, regardless of their work hours, have value and should be compensated fairly.
The gender pay gap is a women’s issue and doesn’t concern men.
Reality: The gender pay gap affects society as a whole, and achieving pay equality benefits everyone by fostering a fair and prosperous society. Gender equality is not solely a women’s issue but a fundamental aspect of social justice. Men also experience the consequences of gender inequality, including perpetuating harmful gender norms and limitations on their own career choices. Working towards pay equality benefits men by promoting equality in the workplace, reducing stereotypes and biases, and creating a more inclusive and equitable society for all.
Real Life Examples
- Iceland’s Equal Pay Certification: Iceland is often cited as a leading example in the fight against the gender pay gap. In 2018, Iceland became the first country in the world to mandate equal pay certification for companies. Employers with 25 or more staff members are required to undergo a rigorous equal pay audit and receive certification to demonstrate pay equity. This legislative intervention aims to eliminate pay disparities and ensure that women and men receive equal pay for equal work.
- Salesforce’s Pay Equity Program: Salesforce, a global technology company, implemented a comprehensive pay equity program to address the gender pay gap within their organization. In 2015, they conducted a thorough analysis of employee salaries, identifying any unexplained differences based on gender. They then made adjustments to ensure equal pay for employees in similar roles. Salesforce continues to conduct regular pay audits to maintain pay equity and holds executives accountable for achieving and maintaining equality.
- The United Kingdom’s Gender Pay Gap Reporting: In 2017, the United Kingdom introduced legislation requiring companies with over 250 employees to report their gender pay gap data. This initiative promotes transparency and holds companies accountable for addressing pay disparities. The reporting requirement compels companies to analyze and publish their gender pay gap figures, fostering public awareness and driving organizations to take action to close the gap.
- Women’s World Banking: Women’s World Banking is a global nonprofit organization that focuses on providing financial services and resources to low-income women. They recognize that financial inclusion is crucial for women’s economic empowerment and work to bridge the gender gap in access to financial services. By offering tailored financial products, training, and support, Women’s World Banking helps women build financial resilience and overcome barriers to economic equality.
- Lean In Circles: Lean In Circles, inspired by Sheryl Sandberg’s book “Lean In,” are small groups of women who come together regularly to support and empower each other in their personal and professional growth. These circles provide a safe space for women to discuss challenges, share experiences, and exchange advice. By fostering peer support and mentorship, Lean In Circles encourage women to aim higher, negotiate for fair compensation, and challenge societal barriers that contribute to the gender pay gap.
These case studies and examples highlight real-world initiatives that aim to address the gender pay gap and empower women. Through legislative interventions, company-led initiatives, financial inclusion efforts, and community-driven support networks, progress is being made in reducing pay disparities and creating a more equitable future.
What People Say about This…
What Can We Do?
- Conduct a Pay Equity Analysis: Conduct a comprehensive pay equity analysis within your organization to identify any gender-based pay disparities. Analyze salary data, accounting for factors such as job roles, experience, and performance. Address any unexplained gaps and make necessary adjustments to ensure equal pay for equal work.
- Implement Transparent Salary Structures: Establish transparent salary structures that clearly define pay ranges for different positions. This promotes fairness and helps eliminate potential biases in compensation decisions. Regularly review and update these structures to ensure they remain equitable.
- Provide Negotiation Training and Support: Offer negotiation training and support programs specifically tailored for women. Provide them with the tools and skills necessary to negotiate salaries and benefits confidently. Encourage women to advocate for their worth and provide resources to help them navigate negotiations successfully.
- Foster Inclusive Leadership: Promote inclusive leadership within your organization. Encourage managers to recognize and address unconscious biases that may influence compensation decisions. Provide training on bias awareness and mitigation to ensure fair treatment and evaluation of employees.
- Establish Family-Friendly Policies: Implement family-friendly policies that support work-life balance and enable women to fulfill their caregiving responsibilities while advancing in their careers. Offer flexible work arrangements, parental leave, and affordable childcare options to reduce the impact of career interruptions and facilitate women’s professional growth.
- Encourage Salary Transparency: Foster a culture of salary transparency, where employees have access to information about salary ranges and criteria for salary progression. Transparency helps promote fairness and allows individuals to advocate for their own pay.
- Promote Mentoring and Sponsorship: Encourage mentoring and sponsorship programs within your organization. Pair women with experienced professionals who can provide guidance, support, and advocacy. Mentors and sponsors can help women navigate career challenges, promote their accomplishments, and open doors for advancement.
- Challenge Gender Stereotypes: Actively challenge gender stereotypes and biases in the workplace. Promote diverse and inclusive job advertisements, hiring practices, and career development opportunities. Encourage women to pursue non-traditional roles and fields, breaking down occupational segregation.
- Support Workforce Reentry Programs: Create programs to support women reentering the workforce after career breaks, such as maternity leave or caregiving responsibilities. Offer training, mentorship, and flexible work arrangements to facilitate their successful transition back into the workforce.
- Conduct a comprehensive pay equity analysis to identify gender-based pay disparities.
- Establish transparent salary structures that promote fairness and equal pay.
- Provide negotiation training and support for women to advocate for their worth.
- Foster inclusive leadership and address unconscious biases in compensation decisions.
- Implement family-friendly policies, such as flexible work arrangements and parental leave.
- Promote mentoring and sponsorship programs to support women’s career advancement.
- Challenge gender stereotypes in job advertisements and career development opportunities.
- Offer workforce reentry programs to support women returning to work after career breaks.
- Regularly review and update policies and practices to ensure ongoing pay equity.
- Foster a culture of transparency, fairness, and inclusivity in the workplace.
By taking these actionable steps, following the tips, and using the checklist, organizations can make tangible progress in addressing the gender pay gap and empowering women towards economic equality.
Here are some additional resources, including books, podcasts, and organizations, to further explore the topic of gender pay gap and women’s empowerment:
- “Lean In: Women, Work, and the Will to Lead” by Sheryl Sandberg
- “Invisible Women: Data Bias in a World Designed for Men” by Caroline Criado Perez
- “Know Your Value: Women, Money, and Getting What You’re Worth” by Mika Brzezinski
- “The Moment of Lift: How Empowering Women Changes the World” by Melinda Gates
- “The Seven Necessary Sins for Women and Girls” by Mona Eltahawy
- “The Broad Experience” hosted by Ashley Milne-Tyte
- “Women at Work” from Harvard Business Review
- “Stuff Mom Never Told You” hosted by Anney Reese and Samantha McVey
- “The Pay Check” from Bloomberg
- “The Guilty Feminist” hosted by Deborah Frances-White
- “The Fairer Cents” hosted by Tanja Hester and Kara Perez
Organizations and Websites:
- Catalyst (www.catalyst.org)
- World Economic Forum – Gender Parity Hub (www.weforum.org/communities/gender-parity)
- LeanIn.org (www.leanin.org)
- UN Women (www.unwomen.org)
- National Women’s Law Center (www.nwlc.org)
- PayScale (www.payscale.com/gender-pay-gap)
Women’s World Banking (www.womensworldbanking.org)